author = "Gon{\c{c}}alves, Nathan Borges and Lopes, Aline Pontes and 
                         Dalagnol da Silva, Ricardo and Wu, Jin and Pinho, Davieliton 
                         Mesquita and Nelson, Bruce Walker",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of Hong 
                         Kong} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)}",
                title = "Both near-surface and satellite remote sensing confirm drought 
                         legacy effect on tropical forest leaf phenology after 2015/2016 
                         ENSO drought",
              journal = "Remote Sensing of Environment",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "237",
                pages = "e111489",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "MODIS-MAIAC, Amazon green-up, EVI seasonality, Phenocam Leaf 
                         demography, El Ni˝o.",
             abstract = "Amazon forest leaf phenology patterns have often been inferred 
                         from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 
                         Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). But reliable MODIS detection of 
                         seasonal and interannual leaf phenology patterns has also been 
                         questioned and is generally not validated with field observation. 
                         Here we compare inter-annual patterns of local-scale upper canopy 
                         leaf phenology and demography derived from tower-mounted phenocams 
                         at two upland forest sites in the Central Amazon, to corresponding 
                         satellite vegetation indices retrieved from MODIS-MAIAC 
                         (Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction). We focus 
                         on forest response to an unprecedented drought caused by the El 
                         Ni˝o of 2015-16. At both sites, multi-year phenocam data showed 
                         post-drought shifts in leaf demography. These were consistent with 
                         MODIS-MAIAC anomalies in two vegetation indices. Specifically, a 
                         precocious leaf flush at both sites during the first two 
                         post-drought months, Feb-Mar 2016, caused (1) an anomalous 
                         decrease in flushing trees in JunJul of 2016 and (2) an increase 
                         of trees with early mature stage leaves (2-4 mo age) in 
                         Apr-May-Jun of 2016. At both sites, these two phenological 
                         anomalies showed up in MODIS-MAIAC as, respectively, (1) a strong 
                         negative anomaly in Gcc (Green chromatic coordinate), which prior 
                         work has shown to be sensitive to the abundance of leaves 0-1 mo 
                         old, and (2) a strong positive anomaly in EVI, which is sensitive 
                         to abundance of leaves 2-4 mo age. A shift to sub-optimal seasonal 
                         leaf age mix is expected to change the ecosystem-scale intrinsic 
                         photosynthetic capacity for ~18 month after the drought.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.rse.2019.111489",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.111489",
                 issn = "0034-4257",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "goncalves_both.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"