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@Article{VeigaGiarNobrNobr:2020:AnInNo,
               author = "Veiga, Sandro Miguel Ferreira and Giarolla, Emanuel and Nobre, 
                         Paulo and Nobre, Carlos Afonso",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)}",
                title = "Analyzing the influence of the North Atlantic Ocean variability on 
                         the Atlantic meridional mode on decadal time scales",
              journal = "Atmosphere",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "11",
               number = "1",
                pages = "e3",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "Atlantic Meridional Mode, Atlantic Ocean variability, 
                         ocean-atmosphere interaction, decadal variability.",
             abstract = ": Important features of the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM) are not 
                         fully understood. We still do not know what determines its 
                         dominant decadal variability or the complex physical processes 
                         that sustain it. Using reanalysis datasets, we investigated the 
                         influence of the North Atlantic Ocean variability on the dominant 
                         decadal periodicity that characterizes the AMM. Statistical 
                         analyses demonstrated that the correlation between the sea surface 
                         temperature decadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and the AMM 
                         time series characterizes the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation 
                         (AMO). This corroborates previous studies that demonstrated that 
                         the AMO precedes the AMM. A causal inference with a newly 
                         developed rigorous and quantitative causality analysis indicates 
                         that the AMO causes the AMM. To further understand the influence 
                         of the subsurface ocean on the AMM, the relationship between the 
                         ocean heat content (0300 m) decadal variability and AMM was 
                         analyzed. The results show that although there is a significant 
                         zero-lag correlation between the ocean heat content in some 
                         regions of the North Atlantic (south of Greenland and in the 
                         eastern part of the North Atlantic) and the AMM, their 
                         cause-effect relationship on decadal time scales is unlikely. By 
                         correlating the AMO with the ocean heat content (0300 m) decadal 
                         variability, the former precedes the latter; however, the 
                         causality analysis shows that the ocean heat content variability 
                         drives the AMO, corroborating several studies that point out the 
                         dominant role of the ocean heat transport convergence on AMO.",
                  doi = "10.3390/ATMOS11010003",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ATMOS11010003",
                 issn = "2073-4433",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "veiga_analyzing.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "18 jan. 2021"
}


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