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@MastersThesis{Bragion:2020:ReLuNo,
               author = "Bragion, Gabriel da Rocha",
                title = "Rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre luzes noturnas do sensor visible 
                         infrared imaging radiometer suite day/night band (VIIRS/DNB) e uso 
                         e cobertura da terra na Amaz{\^o}nia Legal Brasileira",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2020",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2020-03-03",
             keywords = "VIIRS, luzes noturnas, Amaz{\^o}nia Legal, uso e cobertura da 
                         terra, night-time lights, Legal Amazon, land use and land cover.",
             abstract = "Ao longo das {\'u}ltimas d{\'e}cadas, o sensoriamento remoto de 
                         luzes noturnas se estabeleceu como uma importante ferramenta para 
                         o monitoramento de n{\'u}cleos urbanos. No entanto, pouca 
                         aten{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi dada para o monitoramento das {\'a}reas 
                         rurais. Na Amaz{\^o}nia Legal Brasileira (AML), o espectro 
                         urbano-rural tem sido abordado de forma cada vez menos 
                         dicot{\^o}mica, visto que os conceitos cl{\'a}ssicos dessas 
                         denomina{\c{c}}{\~o}es, sejam f{\'{\i}}sicos, 
                         demogr{\'a}ficos ou socioecon{\^o}micos, n{\~a}o parecem ser 
                         suficientes para descrever as rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es e 
                         diverg{\^e}ncias do espa{\c{c}}o urbano-rural. Esta 
                         disserta{\c{c}}{\~a}o contribui para o entendimento das 
                         rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre os dados de luzes noturnas detectados 
                         pelo sensor VIIRS/DNB, assentamentos humanos e outras {\'a}reas 
                         estabelecidas do territ{\'o}rio da AML, para al{\'e}m do 
                         espa{\c{c}}o urbano f{\'{\i}}sico, ao mesmo tempo que apresenta 
                         evid{\^e}ncias sobre como a complexidade desse territ{\'o}rio se 
                         reflete nas rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre os seus diferentes 
                         contextos de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o e vari{\'a}veis derivadas de 
                         dados de luzes noturnas. Dados de uso e cobertura da terra (UCT) 
                         foram integrados para compor uma maior diversidade de padr{\~o}es 
                         de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da AML. Com o aux{\'{\i}}lio de imagens 
                         orbitais de alta resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do sensor RapidEye/REIS e 
                         do reposit{\'o}rio BingMaps, constatou-se que {\'a}reas 
                         consideradas como urbanizadas n{\~a}o detectadas pelas 
                         composi{\c{c}}{\~o}es de luzes noturnas est{\'a}veis somam 
                         apenas 3,5% de toda a {\'a}rea urbanizada da AML, representadas 
                         por {\'a}reas perif{\'e}ricas associadas a pequenos 
                         assentamentos isolados. No entanto, n{\~a}o s{\~a}o as 
                         {\'a}reas urbanizadas que comp{\~o}em a maioria das {\'a}reas 
                         iluminadas, mas sim diferentes configura{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         pastagens (37,26%) e vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o natural florestal 
                         (22,52%). Em termos gerais, essas s{\~a}o as mesmas classes que 
                         representam a maior parte do territ{\'o}rio da AML. No entanto, 
                         testes estat{\'{\i}}sticos evidenciaram que as 
                         propor{\c{c}}{\~o}es m{\'e}dias das {\'a}reas de classes de 
                         uso e cobertura da terra associadas {\`a}s atividades 
                         antr{\'o}picas, como pastagens, {\'a}reas urbanizadas e mosaico 
                         de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~o}es, s{\~a}o significativamente maiores em 
                         {\'a}reas iluminadas. Em contrapartida, as propor{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         m{\'e}dias de florestas prim{\'a}rias s{\~a}o 
                         significativamente menores nessas {\'a}reas. Para atestar a 
                         influ{\^e}ncia dos diferentes contextos de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         sobre a proemin{\^e}ncia da infraestrutura de 
                         ilumina{\c{c}}{\~a}o exterior, primeiramente foram investigadas 
                         as correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre vari{\'a}veis derivadas de dados 
                         de luzes noturnas e o n{\'u}mero de estabelecimentos rurais 
                         pertencentes a uma mesma mancha cont{\'{\i}}gua de luz. Embora 
                         as vari{\'a}veis elencadas obtiveram coeficientes de 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o significativos (Radi{\^a}ncia 
                         m{\'e}dia: 0,11; Radi{\^a}ncia total: 0,19; {\'A}rea iluminada: 
                         0,32), o percentual da varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o do n{\'u}mero de 
                         estabelecimentos rurais explicado por estas vari{\'a}veis {\'e} 
                         inferior aos de outras an{\'a}lises similares encontradas na 
                         literatura, fator atribu{\'{\i}}do {\`a} escala de an{\'a}lise 
                         adotada. Por fim, as {\'a}reas iluminadas foram classificadas de 
                         acordo com a sua matriz de UCT, preservando as classes Mosaico de 
                         Ocupa{\c{c}}{\~o}es e {\'A}reas Urbanizadas, julgadas como 
                         relevantes mesmo quando n{\~a}o prevalentes na paisagem. Os 
                         coeficientes de determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o variaram de forma 
                         substancial quando considerado o contexto de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         das {\'a}reas iluminadas. Contextos nos quais n{\~a}o foi 
                         poss{\'{\i}}vel a identifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o de um padr{\~a}o de 
                         ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, obtiveram coeficientes de 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o t{\~a}o ou mais baixos do que aqueles 
                         originalmente encontrados. No entanto, {\'a}reas em contextos 
                         ribeirinhos tiveram um acr{\'e}scimo no coeficiente de 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o (0,56). Juntos, estes resultados 
                         evidenciam que a rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre dados de luzes noturnas 
                         e os assentamentos humanos na AML pode ser t{\~a}o complexa 
                         quanto as diferentes formas de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         territ{\'o}rio, qualificando este dado como um potencial 
                         descritor do particular processo de urbaniza{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         regi{\~a}o amaz{\^o}nica. ABSTRACT: The remote sensing of 
                         night-time lights has been established as an important tool for 
                         monitoring urban nuclei over the past few decades. However, little 
                         attention has been paid to the monitoring of rural settlements. In 
                         the Brazilian Legal Amazon, the urban-rural spectrum has been 
                         approached in an increasingly less dichotomous way, since the 
                         classic concepts of these denominations, whether physical, 
                         demographic or socioeconomic, do not seem to be enough to describe 
                         the relations and divergences of the urban-rural environment. This 
                         dissertation contributes to the understanding of the relations 
                         between the night-time light data detected by the VIIRS/DNB 
                         sensor, human settlements and other established areas in the 
                         territory of the Legal Amazon, beyond the physical urban space, at 
                         the same time that it brings evidence about how the complexity of 
                         this territory is reflected in the relations between its different 
                         context of occupation and variables derived from night-time lights 
                         data. Data on land use and land cover were integrated to compose a 
                         greater diversity of occupation patterns in the Legal Amazon. With 
                         the help of high-resolution orbital images from the RapidEye/REIS 
                         sensor and the BingMaps repository, it was found that areas 
                         considered urbanized that were not detected by the stable 
                         night-time light composites account for only 3.5% of the entire 
                         urbanized area of the Legal Amazon, being represented by 
                         peripheral areas associated with small isolated villages. However, 
                         it is not the urbanized areas that represent the majority of the 
                         lit areas, but different settings of pastures (37.26%) and natural 
                         forested areas (22.52%). In a broadly perspective, those are the 
                         same classes that represent most of the territory of the Legal 
                         Amazon. However, statistical tests show that the average 
                         proportions of land use and land cover classes that are closely 
                         related to human activities, such as pastures, urbanized areas and 
                         mosaic of occupations, are higher when regarding lit areas. In 
                         contrast, average proportions of primary forests are lower in 
                         these areas. To check for the influence of different contexts of 
                         occupation on the prominence of external lighting infrastructure, 
                         the correlation between variables derived from night-time lights 
                         data and the number of rural buildings in the same light cluster 
                         were investigated. Although all the variables listed resulted in 
                         significant determination coefficients (Average radiance: 0.11; 
                         Total radiance: 0.19; Lit area: 0.32), the percentage of variation 
                         explained by the dependent variables were low, at least lower than 
                         the ones of other similar statistics found in the literature, a 
                         factor attributed to the scale of analysis elected by this 
                         framework. Finally, lit areas were classified according to their 
                         land use and land cover matrix, preserving the classes Mosaic of 
                         Occupations and Urbanized Areas, considered to be relevant even 
                         when they do not prevail in the landscape. The coefficients of 
                         determination changed substantially when considering the context 
                         of occupation of the lit areas. Contexts in which it was not 
                         possible to identify occupation patterns, resulted in lower 
                         coefficients than those found in the original dataset. However, 
                         areas in riverside contexts had a substantial increase of its 
                         coefficient of determination (0.56). Together, these results show 
                         that the relation between night-time light data and human 
                         settlements in the Legal Amazon can be as complex as the many 
                         forms of occupation, qualifying it as a potential descriptor of 
                         the particular urbanization process in the Amazon region.",
            committee = "Escada, Maria Isabel Sobral (presidente) and Kampel, Silvana 
                         Amaral (orientadora) and Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira and 
                         Daleles Renn{\'o}, Camilo and C{\^a}mara Neto, Gilberto and 
                         Machado, Reinaldo Paul P{\'e}rez",
         englishtitle = "Conections between night-time lights of the visible infrared 
                         radiometer sensor day/night band (VIIRS/DNB) and land use and 
                         cover in the Brazilian Legal Amazon",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "130",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/425F72H",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/425F72H",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 abr. 2021"
}


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