author = "Cancelada, Maite and Salio, Paola and Vila, Daniel Alejandro and 
                         Nesbitt, Stephen W. and Vidal, Luciano",
          affiliation = "{Universidad de Buenos Aires} and {Universidad de Buenos Aires} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign} and Servicio 
                         Meteorol{\'o}gico Nacional, Buenos Aires",
                title = "Backward Adaptive Brightness Temperature Threshold Technique 
                         (BAB3T): a methodology to determine extreme convective initiation 
                         regions using satellite infrared imagery",
              journal = "Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "12",
               number = "2",
                pages = "e337",
                month = "jan.",
             keywords = "convective initiation, satellite observations, algorithms, severe 
             abstract = "Thunderstorms in southeastern South America (SESA) stand out in 
                         satellite observations as being among the strongest on Earth in 
                         terms of satellite-based convective proxies, such as lightning 
                         flash rate per storm, the prevalence for extremely tall, wide 
                         convective cores and broad stratiform regions. Accurately 
                         quantifying when and where strong convection is initiated presents 
                         great interest in operational forecasting and convective system 
                         process studies due to the relationship between convective storms 
                         and severe weather phenomena. This paper generates a novel 
                         methodology to determine convective initiation (CI) signatures 
                         associated with extreme convective systems, including extreme 
                         events. Based on the well-established area-overlapping technique, 
                         an adaptive brightness temperature threshold for identification 
                         and backward tracking with infrared data is introduced in order to 
                         better identify areas of deep convection associated with and 
                         embedded within larger cloud clusters. This is particularly 
                         important over SESA because ground-based weather radar 
                         observations are currently limited to particular areas. Extreme 
                         rain precipitation features (ERPFs) from Tropical Rainfall 
                         Measurement Mission are examined to quantify the full 
                         satellite-observed life cycle of extreme convective events, 
                         although this technique allows examination of other intense 
                         convection proxies such as the identification of overshooting 
                         tops. CI annual and diurnal cycles are analyzed and distinctive 
                         behaviors are observed for different regions over SESA. It is 
                         found that near principal mountain barriers, a bimodal diurnal CI 
                         distribution is observed denoting the existence of multiple CI 
                         triggers, while convective initiation over flat terrain has a 
                         maximum frequency in the afternoon.",
                  doi = "10.3390/rs12020337",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs12020337",
                 issn = "2072-4292",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "remotesensing-12-00337.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "11 abr. 2021"