author = "Shimizu, Mar{\'{\i}}lia Harumi and Sampaio, Gilvan and 
                         Ven{\^a}ncio, Igor Martins and Maksic, Jelena",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Seasonal changes of the South American monsoon system during the 
                         Mid\‑Holocene in the CMIP5 simulations",
              journal = "Climate Dynamics",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "54",
               number = "5/6",
                pages = "2697--2712",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "South American monsoon system, Mid-Holocene, CMIP5, Climate 
             abstract = "The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) is a major climatic 
                         feature of South America, and its domain extends from Amazon to La 
                         Plata basin. The SAMS region is vulnerable to variations of 
                         climate and precipitation patterns, which could impact economic 
                         activities and lead to potential societal consequences. In the 
                         face of a warming future scenario, the importance of the study of 
                         the past climate with numerical simulations is to evaluate the 
                         climate models and to assure the reliability of future 
                         projections. Here we investigate the Mid-Holocene SAMS, evaluating 
                         changes in strength, life cycle and associated dynamical 
                         mechanisms in ten Earth System Models simulations. Our results 
                         show that the SAMS was weaker in the Mid-Holocene than in the 
                         pre-industrial climate in December-January-February (DJF), but 
                         stronger in September-October-November (SON). This is probably a 
                         consequence of insolation variations in the Mid-Holocene, which 
                         contributed to changes in the moisture flux from the Atlantic 
                         Ocean to the continent, the strength of the upper-level 
                         atmospheric circulation, and the amount of precipitation over the 
                         SAMS region. Moreover, we suggest that the life cycle of the SAMS 
                         was altered during the Mid-Holocene, with an earlier onset and 
                         demise. Our results also indicate that Mid-Holocene SAMS changes 
                         are connected to precipitation variations near Northeast Brazil, 
                         in a dipole configuration of precipitation between western Amazon 
                         and Northeast Brazil, due to the influence of the Walker cell. 
                         Finally, this study highlights a need for improvement of the 
                         numerical models to better simulate the amount of precipitation 
                         over South America and the upper-level circulation over western 
                         Amazon in SON, which are crucial factors for a more realistic 
                         representation of the SAMS.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00382-020-05137-1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05137-1",
                 issn = "0930-7575",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "shimizu_seasonal.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 abr. 2021"