author = "Carvalho, Raquel and Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra de and Amaral, 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Diversity of cattle raising systems and its effects over forest 
                         regrowth in a core region of cattle production in the Brazilian 
              journal = "Regional Environmental Change",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "20",
               number = "2",
                pages = "UNSP44",
                month = "mar.",
             keywords = "Cattle raising systems, Pasture management, Forest regrowth, 
                         Intensification, Brazilian Amazon.",
             abstract = "Roughly 60% of all deforested lands in the Brazilian Amazon are 
                         covered with pastures, putting cattle raising in evidence as a 
                         major driver of deforestation and also of forests' regrowth. 
                         Still, the role of cattle raising diversity in the landscape 
                         dynamics of this region remains poorly understood. To contribute 
                         to this discussion, we combined data from semi-structured 
                         interviews and quantitative spatially explicit methods to 
                         characterize and spatialize cattle raising systems and explore the 
                         effects of this diversity over secondary vegetation between 2004 
                         and 2014 in Para, a hotspot of deforestation and core region of 
                         cattle production. We quantified the use of different pasture 
                         management strategies to classify small- and large-scale 
                         operations into systems with high or low impact against pastures' 
                         degradation. High-impact systems were mapped in regions with 
                         consolidated infrastructure and high accumulated deforestation, 
                         where they expanded. On the contrary, low-impact systems were more 
                         widespread and found near forest frontiers, shrinking over time. 
                         High-impact systems had less secondary vegetation, while under 
                         low-impact systems, as a result of strategies with little or no 
                         effect against degradation, the historical pattern of 
                         concentration of this cover prevailed. Better infrastructure and 
                         access to markets as well as higher accumulated deforestation are 
                         underlying conditions related to the emergence of intensification 
                         and, as it is still unclear whether intensification is indeed 
                         capable of sparing land, the expansion of intensive cattle raising 
                         systems has the potential to configure landscapes with reduced 
                         forested areas, either primary or secondary.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10113-020-01626-5",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-020-01626-5",
                 issn = "1436-3798 and 1436-378X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "carvalho_diversity.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "16 jan. 2021"