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@Article{HolandaPWSSDDSFWDABBBBCDKKKKFLMMMMPSSSSWWWZZPAP:2020:InAfBi,
               author = "Holanda, Bruna A. and P{\"o}hlker, Mira L. and Walter, David and 
                         Saturno, Jorge and S{\"o}rgel, Matthias and Ditas, Jeannine and 
                         Ditas, Florian and Schulz, Christiane and Franco, Marco 
                         Aur{\'e}lio and Wang, Qiaoqiao and Donth, Tobias and Artaxo, 
                         Paulo and Barbosa, Henrique M. J. and Borrmann, Stephan and Braga, 
                         Ramon and Brito, Joel and Cheng, Yafang and Dollner, Maximilian 
                         and Kaiser, Johannes W. and Klimach, Thomas and Knote, Christoph 
                         and Kr{\"u}ger, Ovid O. and F{\"u}tterer, Daniel and Lavric, 
                         Jošt V. and Ma, Nan and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Ming, 
                         Jing and Morais, Fernando G. and Paulsen, Hauke and Sauer, Daniel 
                         and Schlager, Hans and Schneider, Johannes and Su, Hang and 
                         Weinzierl, Bernadett and Walser, Adrian and Wendisch, Manfred and 
                         Ziereis, Helmut and Z{\"o}ger, Martin and P{\"o}schl, Ulrich and 
                         Andreae, Meinrat O. and P{\"o}hlker, Christopher",
          affiliation = "{Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max 
                         Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Jinan University} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Jinan University} and 
                         {Leipzig University} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {University of Vienna} and {Max 
                         Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit{"a}t} and {Max 
                         Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {German Aerospace Center 
                         (DLR)} and {Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry} and {Jinan 
                         University} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and 
                         {German Aerospace Center (DLR)} and {German Aerospace Center 
                         (DLR)} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {University of Vienna} and 
                         {University of Vienna} and {Leipzig University} and {German 
                         Aerospace Center (DLR)} and {German Aerospace Center (DLR)} and 
                         {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry}",
                title = "Influx of African biomass burning aerosol during the Amazonian dry 
                         season through layered transatlantic transport of black 
                         carbon-rich smoke",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "20",
               number = "8",
                pages = "4757--4785",
                month = "Apr.",
             abstract = "Black carbon (BC) aerosols influence the Earth's atmosphere and 
                         climate, but their microphysical properties, spatiotemporal 
                         distribution, and long-range transport are not well constrained. 
                         This study presents airborne observations of the transatlantic 
                         transport of BC-rich African biomass burning (BB) smoke into the 
                         Amazon Basin using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) as well 
                         as several complementary techniques. We base our results on 
                         observations of aerosols and trace gases off the Brazilian coast 
                         onboard the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft 
                         during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign in September 2014. During 
                         flight AC19 over land and ocean at the northeastern coastline of 
                         the Amazon Basin, we observed a BCrich layer at similar to 3.5 km 
                         altitude with a vertical extension of similar to 0.3 km. Backward 
                         trajectories suggest that fires in African grasslands, savannas, 
                         and shrublands were the main source of this pollution layer and 
                         that the observed BB smoke had undergone more than 10 d of 
                         atmospheric transport and aging over the South Atlantic before 
                         reaching the Amazon Basin. The aged smoke is characterized by a 
                         dominant accumulation mode, centered at about 130 nm, with a 
                         particle concentration of N-acc = 850 +/- 330 cm(-3). The rBC 
                         particles account for similar to 15% of the submicrometer aerosol 
                         mass and similar to 40% of the total aerosol number concentration. 
                         This corresponds to a mass concentration range from 0.5 to 2 mu 
                         gm(-3) (1st to 99th percentiles) and a number concentration range 
                         from 90 to 530 cm(-3). Along with rBC, high cCO (150 +/- 30 ppb) 
                         and cO3 (56 +/- 9 ppb) mixing ratios support the biomass burning 
                         origin and pronounced photochemical aging of this layer. Upon 
                         reaching the Amazon Basin, it started to broaden and to subside, 
                         due to convective mixing and entrainment of the BB aerosol into 
                         the boundary layer. Satellite observations show that the 
                         transatlantic transport of pollution layers is a frequently 
                         occurring process, seasonally peaking in August/September. By 
                         analyzing the aircraft observations together with the long-term 
                         data from the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), we found that 
                         the transatlantic transport of African BB smoke layers has a 
                         strong impact on the northern and central Amazonian aerosol 
                         population during the BB-influenced season (July to December). In 
                         fact, the early BB season (July to September) in this part of the 
                         Amazon appears to be dominated by African smoke, whereas the later 
                         BB season (October to December) appears to be dominated by South 
                         American fires. This dichotomy is reflected in pronounced changes 
                         in aerosol optical properties such as the single scattering albedo 
                         (increasing from 0.85 in August to 0.90 in November) and the 
                         BC-to-CO enhancement ratio (decreasing from 11 to 6 ngm 3 ppb 1). 
                         Our results suggest that, despite the high fraction of BC 
                         particles, the African BB aerosol acts as efficient cloud 
                         condensation nuclei (CCN), with potentially important implications 
                         for aerosol-cloud interactions and the hydrological cycle in the 
                         Amazon.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-20-4757-2020",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-4757-2020",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "holanda_influx.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 abr. 2021"
}


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