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@Article{RibeiroSBFYMOSSKAMSDMS:2020:EnCaMo,
               author = "Ribeiro, Igor O. and Santos, Erickson O. dos and Batista, Carla E. 
                         and Fernandes, Karenn S. and Ye, Jianhuai and Medeiros, Adan S. 
                         and Oliveira, Rafael L. e and S{\'a}, Suzane S. de and Sousa, 
                         Thaiane R. de and Kayano, Mary Toshie and Andreoli, Rita V. and 
                         Machado, Cristine de M. D. and Surratt, Jason D. and D. 
                         J{\'u}nior, Sergio and Martin, Scot T. and Souza, Rodrigo A. F. 
                         de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and {Universidade Federal do 
                         Amazonas (UFAM)} and {Harvard University} and {Universidade do 
                         Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas 
                         (UEA)} and {Harvard University} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} 
                         and {Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM)} and {University of 
                         North Carolina} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} and 
                         {Harvard University} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas 
                         (UEA)}",
                title = "Impact of biomass burning on a metropolitan area in the Amazon 
                         during the 2015 El Nino: the enhancement of carbon monoxide and 
                         levoglucosan concentrations",
              journal = "Environmental Pollution",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "260",
                pages = "e114029",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "Amazon drought, El Nino Southern Oscillation, Air pollution, 
                         Forest fire, Manaus.",
             abstract = "Extreme droughts associated with changes in the climate have 
                         occurred every 5 years in the Amazon during the 21st century, with 
                         the most severe being in 2015. The increase in biomass burning 
                         (BB) events that occurred during the 2015 drought had several 
                         negative socioeconomic and environmental impacts, one of which was 
                         a decrease in the air quality. This study is an investigation into 
                         the air quality in the Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR) (central 
                         Amazon, Brazil) during the dry (September to October) and wet 
                         (April to May) seasons of 2015 and 2016. A strong El Nino event 
                         began during the wet season of 2015 and ended during the wet 
                         season of 2016. Particulate matter samples were collected in the 
                         MMR during 2015 and 2016, and analyses of the satellite-estimated 
                         total carbon monoxide (CO) column and observed levoglucosan 
                         concentrations were carried out. Levoglucosan has been shown to be 
                         significantly correlated with regional fires and is a 
                         well-established chemical tracer for the atmospheric particulates 
                         emitted by BB, and CO can be treated as a gaseous-phase tracer for 
                         BB. The number of BB events increased significantly during the El 
                         Nino period when compared to the average number during 2003 -2016. 
                         Consequently, the total CO column and levoglucosan concentration 
                         values in the MMR increased by 15% and 500%, respectively, when 
                         compared to the normal conditions. These results indicate that 
                         during the period that was analyzed, the impacts of BB were 
                         exacerbated during the strong El Nino event as compared to the 
                         non-El Nino period. In this study, we provided evidence that the 
                         air quality in the MMR will degrade in the future if droughts and 
                         BB occurrences continue to increase.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114029",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114029",
                 issn = "0269-7491",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Ribeiro-impact.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "14 abr. 2021"
}


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