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@PhDThesis{Marchezi:2020:EvULAc,
               author = "Marchezi, Jos{\'e} Paulo",
                title = "Evaluation of ULF activity on the electron transportation in the 
                         outer radiation belt",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2020",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2020-05-19",
             keywords = "Radiation belts, ULF waves, magnetosphere, diffusion coefficients, 
                         cintur{\~o}es de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, ondas ULF, magnetosfera, 
                         coeficiente de difus{\~a}o.",
             abstract = "Van Allens radiation belts consist of two regions with entrapment 
                         of charged particles in the Earths magnetic field: inner and outer 
                         belts. The inner belt is composed mainly of protons with energies 
                         between 100 keV and a few hundred MeV. The outer belt is primarily 
                         consisting of high-energy electrons, ranging from dozens of keV to 
                         a few dozen MeV. Those particles rotate around the field line, 
                         mirroring movement along the magnetic field line and a drift 
                         movement around the Earth. Each movement has a particular time and 
                         is associated with an adiabatic invariant. Changes in the 
                         configuration of the solar magnetic field influence the solar wind 
                         and, consequently, all planets and spaceships within the 
                         heliosphere can be affected by disturbances of the solar wind. 
                         Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) and fast solar wind 
                         High-Speed Streams (HSS), cause disturbances in the Earths 
                         magnetosphere, including radiation belts from Van Allen. ICME 
                         events are more frequent during the growing phase of the solar 
                         cycle, while HSS is more critical during the declining period. The 
                         characteristics of the disturbances observed in the flux of 
                         electrons from the outer radiation belt due to these events are 
                         also different. Since October 2012, NASA initiated the Van Allen 
                         Probes mission that monitors, among other parameters, the magnetic 
                         field and the variation of particles in the radiation belts. The 
                         main objective of this work is to describe, based on observational 
                         data, the radial diffusion mechanism in the presence of ULF waves. 
                         For this, it is necessary to explain the role of ULF waves in the 
                         frequency bands corresponding to the natural oscillations of the 
                         magnetosphere, that is, Pc4 and Pc5, observed in the region of the 
                         external radiation belt, during periods of increased relativistic 
                         electron flux in the outer radiation belt. The energy penetration 
                         capacity as a function of the L-shell of the magnetosphere was 
                         investigated for the different frequency ranges considered in this 
                         research. The radiation belt events were investigated when related 
                         to HSS and ICME occurrences. Statistical results considering all 
                         ICMEs and HSS during the Van Allen Probes era show that for both 
                         solar wind structures, solar wind plasma parameters are strongly 
                         related to the radiation belt response at L \− shell = 5 
                         RE, and on average they show a higher magnitude compared to those 
                         related to decrease in particle flux. Also, the ULF wave power is 
                         obtained as being more intense throughout enhancement events. 
                         Finally, we compare the integrated ULF wave power measured by the 
                         satellites and obtained via empirical modeling, for each L-shell, 
                         the results show that the empirical model overestimates integrated 
                         power for all the investigated L-shells and it discrepancy is 
                         increased at higher L-shells. RESUMO: Os cintur{\~o}es de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de Van Allen consistem em duas regi{\~o}es 
                         com aprisionamento de part{\'{\i}}culas carregadas no campo 
                         magn{\'e}tico da Terra: cintur{\~a}o interno e externo. O 
                         cintur{\~a}o interno {\'e} composto principalmente de 
                         pr{\'o}tons com energias entre 100 keV e algumas centenas de MeV. 
                         O cintur{\~a}o externo, {\'e} composto principalmente por 
                         el{\'e}trons de altas energias, variando de dezenas de keV e 
                         algumas dezenas de MeV. Essas part{\'{\i}}culas realizam 
                         tr{\^e}s movimentos peri{\'o}dicos: giro em torno da linha de 
                         campo, movimento de espelhamento ao longo da linha de campo 
                         magn{\'e}tico e um movimento de deriva em torno da Terra. Cada 
                         movimento possui um tempo caracter{\'{\i}}stico e est{\'a} 
                         associado a um invariante adiab{\'a}tico. As mudan{\c{c}}as na 
                         configura{\c{c}}{\~a}o do campo magn{\'e}tico solar influenciam 
                         o vento solar e, consequentemente, todos os planetas e 
                         espa{\c{c}}onaves dentro da heliosfera podem ser afetados por 
                         perturba{\c{c}}{\~o}es do vento solar. As Eje{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         Massa Coronal Interplanet{\'a}rias (Interplanetary Coronal Mass 
                         Ejection - ICMEs) e os feixes r{\'a}pidos do vento solar (High 
                         Speed Streams - HSS), causam dist{\'u}rbios na magnetosfera da 
                         Terra, incluindo os cintur{\~o}es de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de Van 
                         Allen. Os eventos de ICME s{\~a}o mais frequentes durante a fase 
                         crescente do ciclo solar, enquanto os HSS s{\~a}o mais 
                         importantes durante a fase de decl{\'{\i}}nio. As 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}sticas dos dist{\'u}rbios observados no fluxo 
                         de el{\'e}trons do cintur{\~a}o de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o externo 
                         devido a esses eventos tamb{\'e}m s{\~a}o diferentes. Desde 
                         outubro de 2012, a NASA iniciou a Miss{\~a}o Van Allen Probes que 
                         monitora o campo magn{\'e}tico e a varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         part{\'{\i}}culas nos cintur{\~o}es de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o. O 
                         objetivo principal deste trabalho {\'e} descrever, a partir de 
                         dados observacionais, o mecanismo de difus{\~a}o radial na 
                         presen{\c{c}}a de ondas ULF. Para isso, {\'e} preciso descrever 
                         o papel das ondas ULF nas faixas de frequ{\^e}ncias 
                         correspondentes as oscila{\c{c}}{\~o}es naturais da 
                         magnetosfera, ou seja, Pc3, Pc4 e Pc5, observadas na regi{\~a}o 
                         do cintur{\~a}o externo de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, durante 
                         per{\'{\i}}odos de aumento de fluxo de el{\'e}trons 
                         relativ{\'{\i}}sticos no cintur{\~a}o externo de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Ser{\~a}o investigadas a capacidade de 
                         penetra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de energia em fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o das 
                         camadas L (L-shell) da magnetosfera, para as diferentes faixas de 
                         frequ{\^e}ncia consideradas nessa pesquisa. Com a finalidade de 
                         associar os eventos a perturba{\c{c}}{\~o}es geomagn{\'e}ticas, 
                         ser{\~a}o considerados os eventos relacionados a ocorr{\^e}ncias 
                         de HSS e ICME. Os resultados estat{\'{\i}}sticos, considerando 
                         todos os ICMEs e HSS durante a era de Van Allen Probes, mostram 
                         que, para ambas as estruturas de vento solar, os par{\^a}metros 
                         do plasma de vento solar est{\~a}o fortemente relacionados {\`a} 
                         resposta do cinto de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o em L \− shell = 5 
                         RE e, em m{\'e}dia, mostram uma magnitude maior em 
                         compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o com aqueles relacionado {\`a} 
                         diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o do fluxo de part{\'{\i}}culas. Al{\'e}m 
                         disso, a pot{\^e}ncia da onda ULF {\'e} obtida como sendo mais 
                         intensa durante os eventos de aprimoramento. Por fim, comparamos a 
                         pot{\^e}ncia de onda ULF integrada medida pelos sat{\'e}lites e 
                         obtida por modelagem emp{\'{\i}}rica, valor de L-shell, os 
                         resultados mostram que o modelo emp{\'{\i}}rico superestima a 
                         pot{\^e}ncia integrada para cada valor de L-shell investigadas e 
                         sua discrep{\^a}ncia {\'e} aumentada em L-shell mais altos.",
            committee = "Alves, Maria Virginia (presidente) and Alves, L{\'{\i}}via 
                         Ribeiro (orientadora) and Silva, L{\'{\i}}gia Alves da 
                         (orientadora) and Sibeck, David Gary (orientador) and Silva Souza, 
                         Vitor Moura Cardoso e and Lucas, Aline de and Rojas, Fl{\'a}via 
                         Reis Cardoso",
         englishtitle = "Avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o da atividade de ondas ULF no transporte de 
                         el{\'e}trons no cintur{\~a}o de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o externo",
             language = "en",
                pages = "139",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/42GSLS8",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/42GSLS8",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "16 abr. 2021"
}


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