author = "Vendrasco, {\'E}der Paulo and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and 
                         Ara{\'u}jo, Carolina S. and Ribaud, Jean-Fran{\c{c}}ois and 
                         Ferreira, Rute Costa",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Laboratoire de 
                         M{\'e}t{\'e}orologie Dynamique, {\'E}cole Polytechnique and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Potential use of the GLM for nowcasting and data assimilation",
              journal = "Atmospheric Research",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "242",
                pages = "e105019",
                month = "Sept.",
             abstract = "Based on the relationship between lightning and thunderstorm 
                         microphysics, this paper aims to determine the averaged vertical 
                         profiles of polarimetric variables for different classes of 
                         lightning density according to the GLM grid and then evaluate the 
                         potential use of these profiles for data assimilation in models 
                         with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Polarimetric variables 
                         from an X-band radar located in Campinas-SP and data from the 
                         Brazilian Network were used to detect the microphysics properties 
                         and atmospheric discharges of clouds (GLM proxy). The main 
                         differences between the lightning density class-averaged profiles 
                         for the four variables of ZH, ZDR, KDP and \ρHV were 
                         observed in the region above the melting layer. For the most 
                         intense lightning classes, the signatures associated with high 
                         concentrations of ice particles at high altitudes, the presence of 
                         supercooled drops above the freezing level and the occurrence of 
                         large and more oblate raindrops were observed. To analyze the 
                         possible use of reflectivity profiles as a way to indirectly 
                         assimilate GLM information into forecast models, two case studies 
                         were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. 
                         The analyses and forecasts obtained with the assimilation of radar 
                         data (reflectivity factor and Doppler winds) and with the indirect 
                         assimilation of GLM lightning density rates through mean 
                         reflectivity profiles were evaluated against a control run 
                         assimilating no data. Overall, the two assimilation experiments 
                         offered substantial improvements over the control run in terms of 
                         short-term forecasts of reflectivity patterns and storm motion. 
                         These encouraging results supports the ability of the GLM data to 
                         positively contribute to nowcasting and forecasting of 
                         convective-scale systems, especially over the vast regions of the 
                         South American continent currently suffering from limited and, 
                         even, an utter lack of observations.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105019",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105019",
                 issn = "0169-8095",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "vendrasco_potential.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 abr. 2021"