author = "Borges, Camilla K. and Santos, Carlos A. C. dos and Carneiro, 
                         Rayonil Gomes and Silva, Lindenberg L. da and Oliveira, Gabriel de 
                         and Mariano, Denis and Silva, Madson T. and Silva, Bernardo B. da 
                         and Bezerra, Bergson G. and Perez-Marin, Aldrin M. and Medeiros, 
                         Salom{\~a}o de S.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and carlos.santos@ufcg.edu.br and 
                         {University of Toronto} and {Funda{\c{c}}{\~a}o Cearense de 
                         Meteorologia e Recursos H{\'{\i}}drico (FUNCEME)} and 
                         carlos.santos@ufcg.edu.br and carlos.santos@ufcg.edu.br and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional do Semi{\'a}rido (INSA)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional do Semi{\'a}rido (INSA)}",
                title = "Seasonal variation of surface radiation and energy balances over 
                         two contrasting areas of the seasonally dry tropical forest 
                         (Caatinga) in the Brazilian semi-arid",
              journal = "Environmental Monitoring and Assessment",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "192",
               number = "8",
                pages = "e524",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "Semi-arid . Drought . Land degradation . Turbulent fluxes. Energy 
                         balance closure.",
             abstract = "Arid and semi-arid environments correspond to one-third of the 
                         Earths terrestrial surface. In these environments, precipitation 
                         is an essential and limiting element for vegetation growth and 
                         ecosystem biomass productivity. The semi-arid region of Brazil 
                         comprises around 11.5% of the national territory, where the 
                         Caatinga biome originally composed ~ 76% of this area, with water 
                         deficit as a prominent feature, annual rainfall lower than 800 mm, 
                         temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 C, and potential 
                         evapotranspiration higher than 2000 mm/year. Research on the 
                         dynamics of mass and heat fluxes through techniques such as eddy 
                         covariance (EC) has contributed to estimate the magnitude and 
                         seasonal patterns of turbulent exchanges between ecosystems and 
                         the atmosphere. This study was conducted in an area of dense 
                         Caatinga (DC) and another of sparse Caatinga (SC) from 2013 to 
                         2014. It was observed that albedo (\α) and net radiation 
                         (Rn) were higher in the SC compared with DC since the magnitude of 
                         incoming shortwave radiation was higher in this area. It was found 
                         that most of the Rn is converted to sensible heat flux (H), mainly 
                         during the dry period in the SC, about 50% for H and 20% for 
                         \λE. The energy balance closure showed that the turbulent 
                         fluxes (H + \λE) were underestimated in comparison to the 
                         available energy at the surface (Rn \− G). We also observed 
                         that this discrepancy was higher in the DC area, corresponding to 
                         ~ 30%.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10661-020-08484-y",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08484-y",
                 issn = "0167-6369",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Borges2020_Article_SeasonalVariationOfSurfaceRadi.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "18 abr. 2021"