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@Article{DereczynskiCLSRTCGRS:2020:MoEvRe,
               author = "Dereczynski, Claudine Pereira and Chou, Sin Chan and Lyra, 
                         Andr{\'e} de Arruda and Silva, Marcely Sondermann da and Regoto, 
                         Pedro and Tavares, Priscila da Silva and Chagas, Diego Jos{\'e} 
                         and Gomes, Jorge Lu{\'{\i}}s and Rodrigues, Daniela Carneiro and 
                         Skansi, Mar{\'{\i}}a de los Milagros",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Serv{\'{\i}}cio 
                         Meteorol{\'o}gico Nacional}",
                title = "Downscaling of climate extremes over South America  Part I: model 
                         evaluation in the reference climate",
              journal = "Weather and Climate Extremes",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "29",
                pages = "e100273",
                month = "Sept.",
             keywords = "Climate change, Temperature trends, Precipitation trends, 
                         Simulated trends, Regional model.",
             abstract = "In this paper, we evaluate temperature and precipitation trends 
                         over South America (SA), simulated by the regional Eta model with 
                         20-km horizontal resolution nested to three global models: The 
                         Canadian Earth System Model Second Generation (CanESM2-ES), The 
                         Met Office Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model - Earth System 
                         (HadGEM2-ES) and the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on 
                         Climate version 5 (MIROC5). The simulated trends are compared to 
                         observed trends (OBS) using six (four) extreme temperature 
                         (precipitation) indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate 
                         Change Detection and Indices. In both simulations and OBS, extreme 
                         temperature trends over Amazon (AMZ) and Northeast Brazil (NEB) 
                         are higher than over South East SA (SESA) and West SA (WSA). Also, 
                         trends based on maximum temperatures are, in general, smaller than 
                         those based on minimum temperatures. The three downscaling 
                         simulations reproduce these features. The temperature simulations 
                         of the Eta-CanESM2 (Eta-MIROC5) show the largest (smallest) trends 
                         among the three simulations. The Eta-MIROC5, performs better than 
                         the other two simulations, reproducing the signals and the 
                         magnitudes of the extreme temperature trends, and some cooling 
                         trends over SESA, as shown in the observation. Precipitation 
                         trends from the three simulations do not compare well with 
                         observations, such as temperature trends. However, Eta-MIROC5 
                         presents the best simulations, showing increase in the magnitude 
                         of the precipitation extremes over most of SA. The results from 
                         the three simulations presented here will be further used for the 
                         assessment of climate change projections in the SA region.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.wace.2020.100273",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2020.100273",
                 issn = "2212-0947",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "dereczynski_downscaling.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"
}


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