author = "Ferro, Marco Antonio da Silva and Yamasaki, Jorge and Pimentel, 
                         Douglas Roberto M. and Naccarato, Kleber Pinheiro and Saba, 
                         Marcelo Magalh{\~a}es Fares",
          affiliation = "{Instituto de Aeron{\'a}utica e Espa{\c{c}}o (IAE)} and 
                         {Instituto de Aeron{\'a}utica e Espa{\c{c}}o (IAE)} and 
                         {Instituto de Aeron{\'a}utica e Espa{\c{c}}o (IAE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Lightning risk warnings based on atmospheric electric field 
                         measurements in Brazil",
              journal = "Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management",
                 year = "2011",
               volume = "3",
               number = "3",
                pages = "301--310",
                month = "Sept.",
             keywords = "Atmospheric electric field, Electric field-mill, Lightning.",
             abstract = "This paper presents a methodology that employs the electrostatic 
                         field variations caused by thundercloud formation or displacement 
                         to generate lightning warnings over a region of interest in 
                         Southeastern Brazil. These warnings can be used to prevent 
                         accidents during hazardous operations, such as the manufacturing, 
                         loading, and test of motor-rockets. In these cases, certain 
                         equipment may be moved into covered facilities and personnel are 
                         required to take shelter. It is also possible to avoid the threat 
                         of natural and triggered lightning to launches. The atmospheric 
                         electric field database, including the summer seasons of 2007/2008 
                         and 2008/2009 (from November to February), and, for the same 
                         period and region, the cloud-to-ground lightning data provided by 
                         the Brazilian lightning detection network BrasilDAT were used in 
                         order to perform a comparative analysis between the lightning 
                         warnings and the cloud-to-ground lightning strikes that 
                         effectively occurred inside the area of concern. The analysis was 
                         done for three areas surrounding the sensor installation defined 
                         as circles with 5, 10 and 15 km of radius to determine the most 
                         effective detection range. For each area it was done using several 
                         critical electric field thresholds: +/- 0.5; +/- 0.8; +/- 0.9; +/- 
                         1.0; +/- 1.2; and +/- 1.5 kV/m. As a result of the reduction of 
                         atmospheric electric field data provided by the sensor installed 
                         in area of concern and lightning provided by BrasilDAT, it was 
                         possible, for each of the areas of alert proposals, to obtain the 
                         following parameters: the number of effective alarms; the number 
                         of false alarms; and the number of failure to warning. From the 
                         analysis of these parameters, it was possible to conclude that, 
                         apparently, the most interesting critical electric field threshold 
                         to be used is the level of 0.9 kV/m in association with a distance 
                         range of 10 km around the point where the sensor is installed.",
                  doi = "{10.5028/jatm.2011. 03032511}",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/{10.5028/jatm.2011. 03032511}",
                 issn = "1984-9648",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "2011 A - JATM 
        urlaccessdate = "18 jan. 2021"