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@Article{Romero-HernandezDJEPNRRLASGTP:2020:NiIoTE,
               author = "Romero-Hernandez, Esmeralda and Denardini, Clezio Marcos and 
                         Jonah, Olusegun F. and Essien, Patrick and Pican{\c{c}}o, Giorgio 
                         Arlan da Silva and Nogueira, P. A. B. and Rodriguez-Martinez, 
                         Mario and Resende, Laysa Cristina Ara{\'u}jo and Luz, V. de la 
                         and Agular-Rodriguez, E. and Sergeeva, Maria and Gonzalez-Esparza, 
                         J. Americo and Takahashi, Hisao and Perez-Tijerina, E.",
          affiliation = "{Universidad Aut{\'o}noma de Nuevo Le{\'o}n} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Massachusetts 
                         Institute of Technology} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and Instituto Federal de Educa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, Ciencia e 
                         Tecnologia de S{\~a}o Paulo (IFSP) and {Universidad Nacional 
                         Aut{\'o}noma de M{\'e}xico} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidad Nacional Aut{\'o}noma de 
                         M{\'e}xico} and {Universidad Nacional Aut{\'o}noma de 
                         M{\'e}xico} and {Universidad Nacional Aut{\'o}noma de 
                         M{\'e}xico} and {Universidad Nacional Aut{\'o}noma de 
                         M{\'e}xico} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)}",
                title = "Nighttime ionospheric TEC study over Latin America during moderate 
                         and high solar activity",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "125",
               number = "10",
                pages = "e2020JA028210",
                month = "Oct.",
             abstract = "The present work is a comprehensive study of the ionospheric 
                         vertical total electron content (vTEC) variations during the 
                         nighttime, based on data collected by ground-based Global 
                         Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers over the Latin 
                         American region. We provide a qualitative and quantitative 
                         analysis of the ionospheric vTEC trend at 21:00, 00:00, and 03:00 
                         local time (LT), during geomagnetically undisturbed days of 2011 
                         (ascending phase) and 2014 (maximum phase), which encompassed (a) 
                         the response to the solar flux variation, (b) the seasonal trend 
                         in different latitudes and longitudes, and (c) the 
                         interhemispheric asymmetry. One significant result of this study 
                         is the development of TEC maps for the Latin American region, 
                         which are used for the monitoring and forecasting of the 
                         ionosphere for space weather purposes. The nighttime vTEC 
                         variations showed a strong latitudinal dependence, especially in 
                         the Northern Hemisphere. For 2011, the semiannual anomaly was 
                         similar to that observed in daytime; however, in 2014, the 
                         receivers at midlatitude presented asymmetric behavior. Similarly, 
                         the nighttime winter anomaly (NWA) was very weak in both years. 
                         The Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA) signature was absent from 
                         June to August, a period in which the hemispheric disparity in the 
                         vTEC values became more evident, suggesting a feeble 
                         interhemispheric circulation. The Midlatitude Summer Nighttime 
                         Anomaly (MSNA) was also identified in the Southern Hemisphere, 
                         during January and February of 2011 (moderate solar activity). 
                         Model approximations suggest that the equatorward winds and the 
                         EIA were involved in the formation of the MSNA.",
                  doi = "10.1029/2020JA028210",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028210",
                 issn = "2169-9402",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "romero-nightime.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"
}


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