author = "Alvim, D{\'e}bora Souza and Gatti, Luciana Vanni and Corr{\^e}a, 
                         Sergio Machado and Chiquetto, Julio Barboza and Pendharkar, Jayant 
                         and Pretto, Ang{\'e}lica and Santos, Guaciara Macedo and Rossati, 
                         Carlos de Souza and Herdies, Dirceu Luis and Figueroa, Silvio Nilo 
                         and Nobre, Paulo",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto de Pesquisas Energ{\'e}ticas 
                         e Nucleares (IPEN)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)} and 
                         {University of California} and {Universidade do Estado do Rio de 
                         Janeiro (UERJ)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the megacity of 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo in 2006 and 2011/2012 : a comparative study",
              journal = "Anu{\'a}rio do Instituto de Geoci{\^e}ncias",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "43",
               number = "4",
                pages = "263--282",
             keywords = "ozone, air pollution, volatile organic compounds.",
             abstract = "The focus of this study was to measure the Volatile Organic 
                         Compounds (VOCs) concentrations in the megacity S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The measurements analyzed in this study 
                         included 78 hydrocarbon (HC) samples collected during 2006, and 66 
                         samples of HC, 62 of aldehydes and 42 of ethanol collected during 
                         2011-2012. The observational results showed that the consumption 
                         of ethanol, gasoline and diesel from 2006 to 2012 increased by 64 
                         %, 23 % and 25 %, respectively, with substantial changes in the 
                         atmospheric composition. The 10 most abundant VOCs in the 
                         atmosphere found during 2011/2012 at CETESB IPEN/ USP air quality 
                         monitoring station were ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 
                         acetone, propane, ethene, ethane, butane, 1-ethyl-4- methyl 
                         benzene, and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene. During the 2006 campaign, 
                         alkanes represented 54.8 % of the total HC concentration, alkenes 
                         29.2 %, aromatics 13.6 %, and alkadienes 2.4 %. On the other hand, 
                         during the 2011-2012 campaign, aldehydes represented 35.3 % of the 
                         VOCs, ethanol 22.6 %, aromatics 15.5 %, alkanes 13.5 %, acetone 
                         6.8 %, alkenes 6.0 %, and alkadienes with less than 0.1 %. An 
                         increase in VOCs concentrations in the SPMA atmosphere from 2006 
                         to 2012, such as aldehydes and aromatics (which are important 
                         ozone precursors) was measured.",
                  doi = "10.11137/2020_4_263_282",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.11137/2020_4_263_282",
                 issn = "0101-9759",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "alvim_concentrations.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "21 abr. 2021"