author = "Schumann, Carina and Saba, Marcelo Magalh{\~a}es Fares and Paiva, 
                         Amanda Rom{\~a}o de and Jaques, Robson and Ferro, Marco Antonio 
                         da Silva and Warner, Tom A.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Institute of Aeronautics and Space (IAE)} 
                         and {ZT Research Rapid City SA USA}",
                title = "High-speed observation of upward lightning flashes in Brazil",
            booktitle = "Proceedings...",
                 year = "2014",
         organization = "International Lightning Detection Conference, 23. (ILDC); and 
                         International Lightning Meteorology Conference, 5 (ILMC).",
             keywords = "upward lightning, high-speed video.",
             abstract = "Studies of upward flashes from tall structures around the world 
                         have been reported since 1939. The characteristics of the 
                         triggering mechanism and of the upward flashes are of increasing 
                         interest to wind power turbines, telecommunication toware and 
                         power distribution companies. Observations of upward flashes in 
                         Brazil are recent. Since 2012, upward events were observed in all 
                         different seasons of year. They initiate on several towers in Sao 
                         Paulo, a city in southeast Brazil at an average elevation of 
                         around 800 meters above sea level and a flash density of 15 
                         flashes/kmē.year. Some of the towers are located on top of 
                         buildings or hills. In this study, we will present some 
                         characteristics of these upward flashes, based on high speed video 
                         observation: flash duration, presence of subsequence of return 
                         stroke, previous lightning events, initial continuous current 
                         pulses and the presence recoil leader.",
  conference-location = "Tucson",
      conference-year = "mar. 18-19, 2014 / mar. 20-21, 2014",
                label = "lattes: 0505123426174183 2 SchumannSaPaJaFeWa:2014:HiObUp",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Trabalhos_Publicados_High_Speed_Observations_2014_ILDC_ILMC.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"