author = "Paiva, Amanda Rom{\~a}o de and Saba, Marcelo Magalh{\~a}es Fares 
                         and Naccarato, Kleber Pinheiro and Schumann, Carina and Warner, 
                         Tom A. and Ferro, Marco Antonio da Silva and Jaques, Robson",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {ZT Research Rapid City} and {Institute of 
                         Aeronautics and Space (IAE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Detection of Upward Lightning from Towers in S{\~a}o Paulo, 
                         Brazil by Lightning Location Systems",
            booktitle = "Proceedings...",
                 year = "2014",
         organization = "Ground 2014. \& 6th LPE.",
             keywords = "upward lightning, detection.",
             abstract = "We report upward lightning observations in S{\~a}o Paulo city, 
                         SP, Brazil and compare to data from Lightning Location System 
                         (LLS). Those data were provided by 4 different networks from 
                         different technologies: BrasilDAT, RINDAT, Worldwide Lightning 
                         Location Network (WWLLN), and Earth Networks Global Lightning 
                         Network (ENGLN). Several upward flashes were observed from 
                         20122014 using GPS time-stamped optical sensors and electric field 
                         measurements. These upward flashes were initiated from tall towers 
                         located at Jaragua Peak (90 and 130 m) and along Paulista Avenue 
                         (23 towers with heights between 50 and 220m). Time-correlated 
                         analyzes allowed to evaluate the network detection efficiency, 
                         intracloud (IC) / cloud-to-ground (CG) misclassification 
                         percentage, and location accuracy of the 4 different LLS. We will 
                         also show how different upward flash physical processes (leader 
                         initiation, recoil leaders, return strokes) are detected and 
                         classified by the distinct LLS technologies. Preliminary results 
                         show that in general, recoil leaders were not detected; on the 
                         other hand, several cases of return strokes and some cases of 
                         M-component were detected by one or more LLS networks.",
  conference-location = "Manaus",
      conference-year = "2014",
                label = "lattes: 0505123426174183 2 PaivaSaNaScWaFeJa:2014:DeUpLi",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"