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@InProceedings{SaraivaCWZAPHBBMB:2014:OpEvIn,
               author = "Saraiva, Ant{\^o}nio Carlos V. and Campos, Leandro Zanella de 
                         Souza and Williams, Earle R. and Zepka, Gisele dos Santos and 
                         Alves, J{\'e}ferson and Pinto Jr., Osmar and Heckman, Stan and 
                         Buzato, Tiago Santos and Bailey, Jeffrey C. and Morales, Carlos A. 
                         and Blakeslee, Richard J.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Massachusetts 
                         Institute of Technology} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         Earth Networks Germantown, MD, USA and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of Alabama in 
                         Huntsville} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {NASA 
                         Marshall Space Flight Center}",
                title = "Optical evidences of the inception mechanisms of natural bipolar 
                         cloud-to-ground lightning",
            booktitle = "Proceedings...",
                 year = "2014",
         organization = "International Lightning Detection Conference, 23. (ILDC); and 
                         International Lightning Meteorology Conference, 5 (ILMC).",
            publisher = "Vaisala",
                 note = "Informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es Adicionais: High-speed video records of 
                         two bipolar cloud-to-ground flashes were analyzed in detail. They 
                         were both initiated by single positive return strokes and were 
                         followed by more than one subsequent negative stroke. Due to the 
                         elevated cloud-base height of its parent thunderstorm, the 
                         initiation processes of each subsequent stroke could be registered 
                         optically below cloud base. In the first event (Case 1) it was 
                         possible to observe that all four subsequent negative strokes were 
                         initiated by recoil leaders that retraced one horizontal channel 
                         segment previously ionized by the positive leader that preceded 
                         the first stroke. Those recoil leaders connected to the original 
                         vertical channel segment and propagated towards ground, producing 
                         four subsequent strokes that had the same ground contact point of 
                         the original positive discharge. The second event (Case 2), on the 
                         other hand, presented fifteen subsequent strokes that were 
                         initiated by recoil leaders that did not reach the original 
                         channel of the positive stroke. They diverged vertically towards 
                         ground, making contact approximately 11 kilometers away from the 
                         original positive strike point. These are the first optical 
                         evidences that both single- and multiple-channel bipolar flashes 
                         occur as a consequence of recoil leader activity in the branches 
                         of the initial positive return stroke. For both events their total 
                         channel length increased progressively with time at a growth rate 
                         equivalent to a propagation speed of the order of 104 m/s, 
                         comparable to those reported for typical positive leaders..",
             keywords = "bipolar lightning, atmospheric electricity, recoil leaders, 
                         bidirectional leader model, dart leaders, positive lightning.",
             abstract = "High-speed video records of two bipolar cloud-to-ground flashes 
                         were analyzed in detail. They were both initiated by single 
                         positive return strokes and were followed by more than one 
                         subsequent negative stroke. Due to the elevated cloud-base height 
                         of its parent thunderstorm, the initiation processes of each 
                         subsequent stroke could be registered optically below cloud base. 
                         In the first event (Case 1) it was possible to observe that all 
                         four subsequent negative strokes were initiated by recoil leaders 
                         that retraced one horizontal channel segment previously ionized by 
                         the positive leader that preceded the first stroke. Those recoil 
                         leaders connected to the original vertical channel segment and 
                         propagated towards ground, producing four subsequent strokes that 
                         had the same ground contact point of the original positive 
                         discharge. The second event (Case 2), on the other hand, presented 
                         fifteen subsequent strokes that were initiated by recoil leaders 
                         that did not reach the original channel of the positive stroke. 
                         They diverged vertically towards ground, making contact 
                         approximately 11 kilometers away from the original positive strike 
                         point. These are the first optical evidences that both single- and 
                         multiple-channel bipolar flashes occur as a consequence of recoil 
                         leader activity in the branches of the initial positive return 
                         stroke. For both events their total channel length increased 
                         progressively with time at a growth rate equivalent to a 
                         propagation speed of the order of 104 m/s, comparable to those 
                         reported for typical positive leaders.",
  conference-location = "Tucson",
      conference-year = "mar. 18-19, 2014 / mar. 20-21, 2014",
                label = "lattes: 4161737266837399 2 SaraivaCWZAPHBBMB:2014:OpEvIn",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Saraiva et al-Optical evidences of the inception mechanisms of 
                         natural bipolar CGL-2014-ILDC-ILMC.pdf",
               volume = "1",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"
}


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