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@Article{BelaFFMBWGWAA:2014:OzPrTr,
               author = "Bela, M. M. and Freitas, Karla Maria Longo de and Freitas, Saulo 
                         Ribeiro de and Moreira, Demerval Soares and Beck, V. and Wofsy, S. 
                         C. and Gerbig, C. and Wiedemann, K. and Andreae, M. O. and Artaxo, 
                         P.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry} 
                         and {Harvard University} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Biogeochemistry} and {Harvard University} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {University of Colorado}",
                title = "Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the 
                         dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "14",
               number = "10",
                pages = "14005--14070",
             keywords = "ozone, Amazon Basin.",
             abstract = "The Regional Carbon Balance in Amazonia (BARCA) campaign provided 
                         the first Amazon Basin-wide aircraft measurements of O3 during 
                         both the dry-to-wet (November and December 2008) and wet-to-dry 
                         (May 2009) transition seasons. Extremely low background values 
                         (<20 ppb) were observed to the west and north of Manaus in both 
                         seasons and in all regions during the wet-to-dry transition. On 
                         the other hand, elevated O3 levels (4060 ppb) were seen during the 
                         dry-to-wet transition to the east and south of Manaus, where 
                         biomass burning emissions of O3 precursors were present. Chemistry 
                         simulations with the CCATT-BRAMS and WRF-Chem models are within 
                         the error bars of the observed O3 profiles in the boundary layer 
                         (03 km a.s.l.) in polluted conditions. However, the models 
                         overestimate O3 in the boundary layer in clean conditions, despite 
                         lacking the predominant NO source from soil. In addition, O3 
                         simulated by the models was either within the error bars or lower 
                         than BARCA observations in mid-levels (35 km a.s.l.), indicating 
                         that the models do not represent the free troposphere boundary 
                         layer gradient in O3. Total tropospheric O3 retrieved from OMI/MLS 
                         was higher than that simulated by the models, suggesting that the 
                         satellite observations are dominated by the middle troposphere and 
                         long-range processes and are not a~good indication of O3 
                         conditions in the PBL. Additional simulations with WRF-Chem showed 
                         that the model O3 production is very sensitive to both the O3 
                         deposition velocities, which were about one half of observed 
                         values, and the NOx emissions. These results have implications for 
                         the monitoring and prediction of increases in O3 production in the 
                         Amazon Basin as the regional population grows.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acpd-14-14005-2014",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acpd-14-14005-2014",
                 issn = "1680-7367",
                label = "lattes: 0648767431075703 4 BelaLFMBWGWAA:2014:OzPrTr",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "acpd-14-14005-2014-print.pdf",
                  url = "www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/14/14005/2014/",
        urlaccessdate = "19 jan. 2021"
}


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