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@Article{SabaSchWarHelOrv:2015:HiViEl,
               author = "Saba, Marcelo Magalh{\~a}es Fares and Schumann, Carina and 
                         Warner, Tom A. and Helsdon, John H. and Orville, Richard E.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {South Dakota School 
                         of Mines and Technology} and {South Dakota School of Mines and 
                         Technology} and {Texas A\&M University}",
                title = "High-speed video and electric field observation of a negative 
                         upward leader connecting a downward positive leader in a positive 
                         cloud-to-ground flash",
              journal = "Electric Power Systems Research",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "118",
                pages = "89--92",
             keywords = "Positive lightning, positive leader, stepped leader, high-speed 
                         video, electric field, connect leader.",
             abstract = "It has been discussed in past papers if a positive leader 
                         propagates in a stepped fashion or not. Some studies state that, 
                         in some positive cloud-to-ground flashes, the electric field 
                         pulses observed just before the connection of the positive leader 
                         to ground could be a manifestation of the stepping of the leader. 
                         Some authors say, however, that it may be due to the stepping of 
                         the negative upward connecting leader during its ascension toward 
                         the downward positive leader. In this work we present a 
                         well-documented case of a positive cloud-to-ground flash that 
                         shows that the pulses observed in the electric field preceding the 
                         return stroke are due solely to the upward propagation of a 
                         negative connecting leader. This flash was recorded simultaneously 
                         by a fast electric field sensor and a high-speed camera in July 
                         2012 in the Black Hills area of South Dakota.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.epsr.2014.06.002",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2014.06.002",
                 issn = "0378-7796 and 1873-2046",
                label = "lattes: 5746446930759722 2 SabaSchWarHelOrv:2014:HiViEl",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "High speed.pdf",
                  url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779614002119",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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