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@InProceedings{CamposSaCuAnPiGu:2014:PhChMu,
               author = "Campos, Leandro Zanella de Souza and Saraiva, Antonio Carlos 
                         Varela and Cummins, Kenneth L. and Antunes, Larissa and Pinto Jr., 
                         Osmar and Guedes, Dailton Gilberto",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {The University of 
                         Arizona} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Phenomenology and characterization of multiple ground contact 
                         strokes in natural lightning",
            booktitle = "Proceedings...",
                 year = "2014",
         organization = "ICAE 2014. - International Conference on Atmospheric 
                         Electricity.",
                 note = "Informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es Adicionais: An analysis of the 
                         phenomenology and overall characteristics of 35 cloud-to-ground 
                         (CG) strokes that create two or more contact points to the ground 
                         in a millisecond scale are presented. This dataset includes both 
                         the classical forked strokes (first observed in streak camera 
                         records) and the new class of this type of phenomenon, called 
                         upward illumination strokes, introduced in more recent works. The 
                         broad class of strokes that present two or more contact points in 
                         a millisecond and sub-millisecond scale was termed multi ground 
                         contact strokes (MGCS) as their geneses are very similar: one 
                         branch from the main trunk of a stepped leader produces a second 
                         stroke shortly after the first return stroke occurs. Over a 
                         five-day campaign, a total of 357 negative CG flashes were 
                         recorded by the RAMMER network, which is comprised of four 
                         high-speed video cameras (three stationary monochromatic and one 
                         mobile colored). They were set up for recording with 1200 x 500 
                         pixels per frame, at 2500 frames per second (390- s exposure 
                         time). From careful visual inspection, 35 MGCS events were found, 
                         among which 22 were classified as forked strokes and 13 as UI 
                         strokes. RAW data from BrasilDAT network was used to identify and 
                         give additional information about the MGCS. After a number of 
                         detailed case studies and a review of the recent literature, it 
                         was found that the main difference between UI and classical forked 
                         stroke events are: a) UI stroke channels present an optical 
                         discontinuity from the main trunk during its development (i.e., 
                         there was a region of lower or no apparent luminosity between its 
                         brighter region and the forking point from the main channel), b) 
                         the time between strokes is longer than in the case of classical 
                         forked strokes and c) the peak currents of the UI strokes are, 
                         usually, very small. Analysis of the relationship between the 
                         interstroke interval and peak current added new information on the 
                         physical characteristics and distinctive features of UI and 
                         forked.",
             keywords = "Forked strokes, Multiple ground contacts, Lightning Physics, 
                         High-speed video.",
             abstract = "An analysis of the phenomenology and overall characteristics of 35 
                         cloud-to-ground (CG) strokes that create two or more contact 
                         points to the ground in a millisecond scale are presented. This 
                         dataset includes both the classical forked strokes (first observed 
                         in streak camera records) and the new class of this type of 
                         phenomenon, called upward illumination strokes, introduced in more 
                         recent works. The broad class of strokes that present two or more 
                         contact points in a millisecond and sub-millisecond scale was 
                         termed multi ground contact strokes (MGCS) as their geneses are 
                         very similar: one branch from the main trunk of a stepped leader 
                         produces a second stroke shortly after the first return stroke 
                         occurs. Over a five-day campaign, a total of 357 negative CG 
                         flashes were recorded by the RAMMER network, which is comprised of 
                         four high-speed video cameras (three stationary monochromatic and 
                         one mobile colored). They were set up for recording with 1200 x 
                         500 pixels per frame, at 2500 frames per second (390-Ás exposure 
                         time). From careful visual inspection, 35 MGCS events were found, 
                         among which 22 were classified as forked strokes and 13 as UI 
                         strokes. RAW data from BrasilDAT network was used to identify and 
                         give additional information about the MGCS. After a number of 
                         detailed case studies and a review of the recent literature, it 
                         was found that the main difference between UI and classical forked 
                         stroke events are: a) UI stroke channels present an optical 
                         discontinuity from the main trunk during its development (i.e., 
                         there was a region of lower or no apparent luminosity between its 
                         brighter region and the forking point from the main channel), b) 
                         the time between strokes is longer than in the case of classical 
                         forked strokes and c) the peak currents of the UI strokes are, 
                         usually, very small. Analysis of the relationship between the 
                         interstroke interval and peak current added new information on the 
                         physical characteristics and distinctive features of UI and forked 
                         strokes.",
  conference-location = "Norman",
      conference-year = "2014",
                label = "lattes: 4161737266837399 1 CamposSaCuAnPiGu:2014:PhChMu",
             language = "en",
                  url = "http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/users/mansell/icae2014/preprints/Campos_57.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"
}


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