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@Article{LoboCostNovo:2015:TiAnLa,
               author = "Lobo, Felipe L. and Costa, Maycira P. F. and Novo, Evlyn 
                         M{\'a}rcia Le{\~a}o de Moraes",
          affiliation = "{University of Victoria} and {University of Victoria} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Time-series analysis of Landsat-MSS/TM/OLI images over Amazonian 
                         waters impacted by gold mining activities",
              journal = "Remote Sensing of Environment",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "157",
                pages = "170--184",
             keywords = "Landsat time series, deglinting, atmspheric correction, golding 
                         mining.",
             abstract = "Water siltation caused by artisanal gold mining has impacted the 
                         Tapaj{\'o}s River Basin in Brazil for the past 40. years, however 
                         spatial-temporal information about changes in water quality and 
                         consequences to the aquatic environment is lacking. To address 
                         this, the Landsat satellite family sensors were used to retrieve 
                         total suspended solids (TSS) of the water of the Tapaj{\'o}s 
                         River from 1973 to 2013. An image processing approach that 
                         includes atmospheric correction, based on the 6S model, and glint 
                         removing, based on shortwave infrared correction, was applied and 
                         validated with in situ radiometric data. An optimization of the 
                         atmospheric correction having dark dense forest spectra as 
                         reference was applied and allowed a robust correction of MSS, TM 
                         and OLI signal to surface reflectance values. Sediment 
                         concentration was estimated based on a non-linear empirical 
                         regression between measured TSS and satellite surface reflectance 
                         at red band. The multi-temporal analysis of TSS showed that the 
                         sediment load in the Tapaj{\'o}s aquatic system is in synchrony 
                         with mining activities, and a constant seasonal variation of water 
                         siltation is observed throughout the time frame of this study. At 
                         the end of the rainy season, mining activities intensify and, 
                         coupled with low water flow, TSS increases. During the high water 
                         level, TSS concentrations were consistently lower because of high 
                         water dilution and low mining activity. In a decadal analysis, a 
                         peak of sediment concentration coincides with a peak of gold 
                         production in all sites analyzed during early 1990s. More 
                         recently, due to the currently gold rush, an increase in suspended 
                         solids has been observed mainly in the Novo and Tocantins rivers 
                         where industrial mining has been installed.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.rse.2014.04.030",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.04.030",
                 issn = "0034-4257",
                label = "lattes: 9857505876280820 3 LoboCostNovo:2014:TiAnLa",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "time series analysis.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"
}


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