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@Article{RaoFranEspíGan:2016:SeVaTr,
               author = "Rao, Vadlamudi Brahmananda and Franchito, S{\'e}rgio Henrique and 
                         Esp{\'{\i}}rito Santo, Clovis Monteiro do and Gan, Manoel 
                         Alonso",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "An update on the rainfall characteristics of Brazil: seasonal 
                         variations and trends in 1979-2011",
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "36",
               number = "1",
                pages = "291--302",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "rainfall over Brazil, tendencies of rainfall over Brazil, river 
                         discharges in Brazil.",
             abstract = "We studied rainfall characteristics of Brazil for the period 
                         19792011. This is an update for an earlier study with data from 
                         1958 to 1978. We compared the three consecutive wet and dry months 
                         in the two data sets. In the northern most part rainy season 
                         earlier was in April to July and now it is occurring later. In a 
                         large part of the south central region the rainy season in austral 
                         summer and dry season in austral winter did not change. However, 
                         to the east of this region rainy season in the latter data occurs 
                         earlier. Calculation of linear tendencies showed, that over the 
                         northern Amazon region there is a significant increase of 
                         rainfall. This agreed with previous results. Over this region dry 
                         season is becoming drier and wet season wetter. In the west of 
                         Northeast Brazil (NEB) there is an increase of rainfall. In 
                         southeast Brazil there is a region of highly significant decrease 
                         of rainfall in both wet and dry seasons. This is confirmed in our 
                         analysis on river discharges in Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais states. 
                         The negative tendencies in rainfall have great impact on the 
                         hydroelectric generation not only in this region but also at the 
                         national level because the hydroelectric dams furnish energy on a 
                         national level. The increase in rainfall in Northern Amazon is 
                         probably associated with Atlantic warming that resulted in higher 
                         moisture transport from east. The decrease of rainfall in 
                         southeast Brazil seems to be associated with the plummet of rain 
                         producing systems from south due to increase of mean sea level 
                         pressure in the south.",
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.4345",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4345",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
                label = "lattes: 5465249419038855 2 RaoFranSantGan:2015:SeVaTr",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "rao_update.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"
}


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