author = "Garcia, S{\^a}mia Regina and Calheiros, Alan James Peixoto and 
                         Kayano, Mary Toshie",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Itajub{\'a} (UNIFEI)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Revised method to detect the onset and demise dates of the rainy 
                         season in the South American Monsoon areas",
              journal = "Theoretical and Applied Climatology",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "on line",
                pages = "1--11",
             abstract = "This paper proposes the detection of dates for the onset and 
                         demise of the rainy season (ONR and DER, respectively) for some 
                         areas within the South American monsoon system (SAMS) region using 
                         procedures based on indices which could be easily calculated and 
                         subjected to very simple criterion. Previously, the time series of 
                         the averaged antisymmetric outgoing longwave radiation ([AOLR]) in 
                         each region of interest was used by some authors to detect ONR and 
                         DER. This method is referred to as OLD. First, it was proposed in 
                         this paper to smooth this time series with the five-pentad running 
                         mean ([RM_AOLR]). This modified method is called NEW. Then, an 
                         additional modification was adopted by smoothing the [AOLR] with 
                         the three-pentad running mean but with the [AOLR] in the most 
                         recent pentad being replaced by its climatological value 
                         ([RM_AOLRCLI]). This method is called NEW_CLI. For these methods, 
                         the criterion was that the first pentad with negative (positive) 
                         [AOLR] (or [RM_AOLR] or [RM_AOLRCLI]) is the ONR (DER) date in the 
                         region of interest. All these methods were applied for the Central 
                         Amazon (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) regions during the 
                         rainy seasons in the 20012013 period. The efficiency of these 
                         methods was analyzed using the precipitation estimated from the 
                         Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite 
                         Precipitation Analysis. The spatial average of the TRMM ([TRMM]) 
                         time series with threshold values, which depends on the area and 
                         season, was used to determine the ONR and DER dates. In this case, 
                         the single method based on the threshold value is called RAIN, and 
                         the method which considers the persistence of dry or wet condition 
                         is referred to as NEW_RAIN. Comparisons between the methods were 
                         performed by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) when 
                         ONR and DER dates obtained from a given method were considered as 
                         the true dates. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods 
                         were discussed here. It was previously noted that the [AOLR] time 
                         series during the transition from dry (wet) to wet (dry) season 
                         showed several signs of oscillation. This was a weakness when 
                         detecting the ONR and DER dates; however, using the NEW and 
                         NEW_CLI methods eliminated this problem. The NEW_CLI method has 
                         more advantages than the other methods and will be useful for 
                         monitoring the ONR and DER dates of the SAMS regions.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00704-015-1599-3",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-015-1599-3",
                 issn = "0177-798X",
                label = "lattes: 5419406895036725 2 GarciaCalhKaya:2015:ReMeDe",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "1_garcia.pdf",
                  url = "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-015-1599-3",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"