author = "Molina, L. and Broquet, G. and Imbach, P. and Chevallier, F. and 
                         Poulter, B. and Bonal, D. and Burban, B. and Ramonet, M. and 
                         Gatti, Luciana Vanni and Wofsy, S. C. and Munger, J W and 
                         Dlugokencky, E. and Ciais, P.",
          affiliation = "{Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement} and 
                         {Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement} and 
                         {Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center} and 
                         {Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement} and 
                         {Montana State University} and INRA and {NOAA Earth System 
                         Research Laboratory} and {Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de 
                         l’Environnement} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {} and {} and {} and {Laboratoire des Sciences du 
                         Climat et de l’Environnement}",
                title = "On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain 
                         variations of CO<sub>2</sub> fluxes over Amazonia",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "15",
               number = "14",
                pages = "8423--8438",
             keywords = "Balan{\c{c}}o de Carbono, Mudan{\c{c}}as Clim{\'a}ticas.",
             abstract = "The exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere 
                         and the Amazon basin have global implications for the current and 
                         future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of 
                         the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) 
                         service is used to study the seasonal and interannual variations 
                         of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia during the period 20022010. The 
                         system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole 
                         fractions made at more than 100 sites over the globe into an 
                         atmospheric transport model. The present study adds measurements 
                         from four surface stations located in tropical South America, a 
                         region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net 
                         ecosystem exchange (NEE) optimized by the inversion are compared 
                         to an independent estimate of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance 
                         flux measurements in Amazonia. They are also qualitatively 
                         evaluated against reports on the seasonal and interannual 
                         variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific 
                         literature. We attempt at assessing the impact on NEE of the 
                         strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and 
                         longer-thanusual dry seasons) and the extreme rainfall conditions 
                         registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and 
                         interannual variability of optimized NEE are also investigated. 
                         While the inversion supports the assumption of strong spatial 
                         heterogeneity of these variations, the results reveal critical 
                         limitations of the coarse-resolution transport model, the surface 
                         observation network in South America during the recent years and 
                         the present knowledge of modelling uncertainties in South America 
                         that prevent our inversion from capturing the seasonal patterns of 
                         fluxes across Amazonia. However, some patterns from the inversion 
                         seem consistent with the anomaly of moisture conditions in 2009.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-15-8423-2015",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8423-2015",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
                label = "lattes: 6983900937588878 9 MolinaBICPBBRGWMDC:2015:AbGlAt",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "1_molina.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "02 dez. 2020"