author = "D'Agostini, Andressa and Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino and 
                         Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi",
          affiliation = "{} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Connectivity of marine protected areas and its relation with total 
                         kinetic energy",
              journal = "Plos One",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "10",
               number = "10",
                pages = "e0139601",
             abstract = "The East Continental Shelf (ECS) of Brazil is a hotspot of 
                         endemism and biodiversity of reef biota in the South Atlantic, 
                         hosting a number of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Connectivity of 
                         MPAs through larval dispersal influences recruitment, population 
                         dynamics, genetic structure and biogeography in coral reef 
                         ecosystems. Connectivity of protected reef ecosystem in the ECS 
                         was investigated with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS) forcing an 
                         Individual Based Model (IBM-Ichthyop), and used groupers (genus 
                         Mycteroperca) as functional group. The hydrodynamic output from 
                         ROMS was compared with satellite data and showed good agreement 
                         with observed surface fields. Eggs were released, in IBM 
                         experiments, from April to September along six years (2002-2007) 
                         in five MPAs along the ECS. Intrannual variability in recruitment 
                         and self-recruitment of grouper larvae was observed, as well as a 
                         negative correlation of these population parameters with total 
                         Kinetic Energy (KE) used as a metric of the physical environment. 
                         Higher KE leads to increased offshore advection of larvae, reduced 
                         total recruitment and connectivity of MPAs. Our results indicate 
                         high and uni-directional connectivity between MPAs from north to 
                         south influenced by the Brazil Current flowing in the same 
                         direction. Results also showed that some MPAs act predominantly as 
                         {"}sink{"} while others are mainly {"}source{"} areas.",
                  doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0139601",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139601",
                 issn = "1932-6203",
                label = "lattes: 5421394642444587 2 D?agostiniGherPezz:2015:CoMaPr",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"