author = "Schwerdtfeger, Julia and Silveira, S{\'e}rgio Wagner Gripp da and 
                         Zeilhofer, Peter and Weiler, Markus",
          affiliation = "{University of Freiburg} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT)} 
                         and {University of Freiburg}",
                title = "Coupled ground- and space-based assessment of regional inundation 
                         dynamics to assess impact of local and upstream changes on 
                         evaporation in tropical wetlands",
              journal = "Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "7",
               number = "8",
                pages = "9769--9795",
             keywords = "Pantanal, MODIS, inundation, evaporation, tropical wetland, 
             abstract = "Modifications of human land use and climate change are known to be 
                         a threat for the health and proper functioning of tropical 
                         wetlands. They interfere with the seasonal flood pulse, which is 
                         seen as the most important driver for biodiversity and directly 
                         controls evaporation. In order to investigate the impact of local 
                         and upstream changes on wetlands, a regional assessment of 
                         evaporation is crucial but challenging in such often remote and 
                         poorly gauged ecosystems. Evaporation is the major water balance 
                         component of these wetlands and links the flood pulse with the 
                         ecosystem. It can therefore be seen as a proxy for their 
                         functioning. In the last decades, information from space became an 
                         important data source to assess remote wetland areas. Here, we 
                         developed a new approach to quantify regional evaporation driven 
                         by inundation dynamics as its dominant control. We used three 
                         water and vegetation indices (mNDWI (modified Normalized 
                         Difference Water Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation 
                         Index), and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index)) from MODIS (Moderate 
                         Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) surface reflectance products 
                         to assess regional inundation dynamics between the dry and wet 
                         seasons. Two years of continual in situ water level measurements 
                         at different locations in our study area, the Pantanal wetland of 
                         South America, provided the reference to evaluate our method. With 
                         process-based modeling that used the inundation dynamics to 
                         determine the water available for evaporation, we were able to 
                         estimate actual evaporation (AET) on a regional scale. Relating 
                         AET to changes in discharge due to upstream flow modifications and 
                         on local precipitation over the last 13 years, we found that the 
                         Pantanal is more vulnerable to alternated inundation dynamics than 
                         to changes in local precipitation. We concluded that coupling 
                         ground- and space-based information in this remote wetland area is 
                         a valuable first step to investigate the status of the Pantanal 
                  doi = "10.3390/rs70809769",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs70809769",
                 issn = "2072-4292",
                label = "lattes: 6020749180588729 2 SchwerdtfegerSilvZeilWeil:2015:CoGrSp",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "1_schwerdffeger.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"