author = "Bergier, Ivan and Assine, Mario Luis and Alves, Lincoln M. and 
                         Bastviken, D. and Bayma-Silva, G. and Bergier, I. and Buller, L. 
                         S. and Catalani, T. G. T. and Cavazzana, G. H. and Silva, J. S. V. 
                         da and Carvalho Dores, E. F. G de and Moraes, A. de and Freitas, 
                         B. T. and Goulart, T. and Gu{\'e}rin, F. and Guerreiro, R. L. and 
                         Krusche, A. and Lastoria, G. and Macedo, H. A. and Marengo, Jose 
                         A. and Mattos, P. P. and McGlue, M. M. and Merino, E. R. and 
                         Monteiro, H. and Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio de and Ortega, E. and 
                         Padovani, C. R. and Paranhos-Filho, A. C. and Pott, A. and Pupim, 
                         F. D. N. and Quaglio, F. and Riccomini, C. and Roche, K. F. and 
                         Salis, S. M. and Sawakuchi, H. O. and Silva, A. and Silva, A. P. 
                         S. and Sim{\~o}es, M. G. and Stevaux, J. C. and Warren, L. W. and 
                         Zanetti, M. R.",
               editor = "Barcel{\`o}, Damia and Kostianoy, A. G.",
                title = "Dynamics of the Pantanal Wetland in South America",
            publisher = "Springer",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "37",
             keywords = "Pantanal, wetland, South America.",
             abstract = "This book presents the Pantanal wetland in a singular perspective 
                         where the reader can envisage changes in the Pantanal landscape 
                         under variable lenses of time and space, since its early formation 
                         to the actual and likely future states. The book reveals that 
                         todays Pantanal is an evolutionary sequence of geologic, ecologic, 
                         and more recently manmade events taking place at distinct 
                         space-time frequencies. Under this perspective, the notion of 
                         preserving the Pantanal wetland as today in the long term is 
                         somehow idealistic, as much stronger planetary forces are involved 
                         in its dynamics and configuration. Geotectonics and SunEarth 
                         interaction largely dictate the rate of drastic environmental 
                         changes that eventually disrupt the ecological stability, 
                         radically rebuilding the regional landscape as already occurred in 
                         the past. Warren et al. (chapter Underneath the Pantanal Wetland: 
                         A Deep-Time History of Gondwana Assembly, Climate Change, and the 
                         Dawn of Metazoan Life) show that Precambrian rocks that form the 
                         hills, locally known as morrarias, register the supercontinent 
                         assembling, the origin of metazoans like Cloudina and Corumbella, 
                         and past climate changes. On the other hand, at intermediate 
                         timescales, the biota-climate system is a major driver reshaping 
                         the ecohydrology functioning in the landscape. Assine et al. 
                         (chapter Geology and Geomorphology of the Pantanal Basin) provide 
                         evidences that the Pantanal is an active sedimentary basin with 
                         faults and associated earthquakes that delimit the most 
                         flood-prone areas and point that geomorphology is the product of 
                         climatic fluctuations and environmental changes that have been 
                         occurring since the Late Pleistocene. McGlue et al. (chapter 
                         Paleolimnology in the Pantanal: Using Lake Sediment Archives to 
                         Track Late Quaternary Environmental Change in the Worlds Largest 
                         Neotropical Wetland) suggest that severe widespread drought is the 
                         response of the Pantanal to highlatitude glaciation, perhaps due 
                         to linkages among effective precipitation, ITCZ position, and 
                         North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Assine et al. (chapter 
                         Avulsive Rivers in the Hydrology of the Pantanal Wetland) 
                         illustrate that avulsions and bottlenecks dictate geomorphology, 
                         hydrodynamics, and the ecohydrology of the Pantanal wetland. The 
                         models and evidences presented in chapter Avulsive Rivers in the 
                         Hydrology of the Pantanal Wetland is a step further in the 
                         comprehension of the Pantanal hydrodynamics. Very recently, in the 
                         Anthropocene, short-term timescale changes in ecohydrology and 
                         biodiversity are due to both land-use and in course climate 
                         change. Chapter Terrestrial and Aquatic Vegetation Diversity of 
                         the Pantanal Wetland by Pott and Silva is a comprehensive review 
                         of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation diversity in the Pantanal, 
                         demonstrating how manmade land-use has been altering the 
                         vegetation landscape. Pott and Silva conclude that vegetation is 
                         very resilient and flexible and adapts to wet-and-dry seasonal and 
                         decadal cycles, including fire, and shall remain diverse as long 
                         as the hydrological balance is not disrupted by homogenization 
                         toward either an entirely dry or a fully wet system. Bergier et 
                         al. (chapter Metabolic Scaling Applied to Native Woody Savanna 
                         Species in the Pantanal of Nhecolandia) show for the Nhecolandia 
                         subregion how forest biomass allocation, independently of the 
                         species, follows the metabolic scaling theory, though 
                         close-to-soil groundwater makes the ratio below/above biomass 
                         lower than unit probably to cope with evapotranspiration. Still in 
                         the Nhecolandia, Bergier et al. (chapter Alkaline Lakes Dynamics 
                         in the Nhecolandia Landscape) show that alkaline lakes can be 
                         segregated into three ecological functional groups accordingly to 
                         their biogeochemistry and greenhouse gas exchanges and that these 
                         singular lakes are steadily reducing in area and number likely due 
                         to land-use changes in highlands that affect the ecohydrology of 
                         the whole Upper Paraguay River Basin. Bergier et al. (chapter 
                         Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Paraguay River 
                         floodplain (Pantanal) during Episodic Anoxia Events) bring lacking 
                         data on methane and carbon dioxide dynamics in the Paraguay River 
                         floodplain during the natural and very anoxic dequada or decoada 
                         event that develops in variable intensity and magnitude at every 
                         annual flood. Regarding human interferences, Dores (chapter 
                         Pesticides in the Pantanal) provides a discussion highlighting 
                         that agricultural activities occur mainly in the highlands and 
                         represent the main source of pesticides to the Pantanal. 
                         Nevertheless, although detected with low frequency and relatively 
                         low concentrations, pesticides may interfere in the Pantanal 
                         ecosystem, and little is known about potential effects, indicating 
                         that more research is needed. Buller et al. (chapter Historical 
                         Land-use Changes in Sao Gabriel do Oeste at the Upper Taquari 
                         River Basin) illustrate that human appropriation of the net 
                         primary production in highlands has been improving human 
                         development index and economic concentration, although the 
                         agribusiness development has diminished ecosystem services and 
                         resilience. Buller et al. emphasize that new sustainable design of 
                         agroecosystems (integrated croplivestock and forestry) in the 
                         Upper Taquari River Basin can maximize and optimize both the 
                         sharing of rural productivity and carbon/water regulations that 
                         positively reflect to the lowlands of the Pantanal. Cavazanna et 
                         al. (chapter Natural and Environmental Vulnerability along the 
                         Touristic Estradas Parque Pantanal by GIS Algebraic Mapping) 
                         traced the vulnerability of tourism activities in the lowlands 
                         (Estradas Parque Pantanal), which is a major economic activity in 
                         the region. The Estradas Parque Pantanal is undergoing ecological 
                         pressure, which means that further changes applied to the 
                         landscape can alter its status to vulnerable. Finally, Marengo et 
                         al. (chapter Climate Change Scenarios in the Pantanal) show future 
                         scenarios of climate change indicating that by the end of the 
                         century temperatures can increase upon to 7C and rainfall can 
                         decrease in austral summer and particularly in austral winter 
                         seasons. Marengo et al. highlight the relevance of restoring the 
                         natural interannual flood pulse dynamics and to improve the 
                         resilience of the wetland ecosystems with regard to future climate 
                         change risk. In summary, the ability to recognize how those 
                         variable processes occurring at different temporal scales and 
                         strength dynamically affect the Pantanal wetland opens new 
                         opportunities to adaptation strategies for increasing ecosystems 
                         resilience by means of the sustainable development in low- and 
                         highlands. The Pantanal is a place of changing rivers and public 
                         policies must consider this intrinsic dynamism.",
          affiliation = "{} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} 
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                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                  doi = "10.1007/698_2015_357",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/698_2015_357",
                 isbn = "9783319187341",
                label = "lattes: 0236607123089481 2 MarengoOlivAlve:2016:HaEnCh",
             language = "pt",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"