author = "Moro, Juliano and Denardini, Clezio Marcos and Resende, Laysa 
                         Cristina Ara{\'u}jo and Chen, Sony Su and Schuch, Nelson Jorge",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                title = "Influence of uncertainties of the empirical models for inferring 
                         the E-region electric fields at the dip equator",
              journal = "Earth, Planets and Space",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "68",
               number = "103",
                pages = "1--15",
             keywords = "Space weather, Equatorial aeronomy, E-region electric fields, 
                         Empirical models.",
             abstract = "Daytime E-region electric fields play a crucial role in the 
                         ionospheric dynamics at the geomagnetic dip latitudes. Due to 
                         their importance, there is an interest in accurately measuring and 
                         modeling the electric fields for both climatological and near 
                         real-time studies. In this work, we present the daytime vertical 
                         (Ez) and eastward (Ey) electric fields for a reference quiet day 
                         (February 7, 2001) at the S{\~a}o Lu{\'{\i}}s Space 
                         Observatory, Brazil (SLZ, 2.31S, 44.16W). The component Ez is 
                         inferred from Doppler shifts of type II echoes (gradient drift 
                         instability) and the anisotropic factor, which is computed from 
                         ion and electron gyro frequencies as well as ion and electron 
                         collision frequencies with neutral molecules. The component Ey 
                         depends on the ratio of Hall and Pedersen conductivities and Ez. A 
                         magnetic field-line-integrated conductivity model is used to 
                         obtain the anisotropic factor for calculating Ez and the 
                         ionospheric conductivities for calculating Ey. This model uses the 
                         NRLMSISE-00, IRI-2007, and IGRF-11 empirical models as input 
                         parameters for neutral atmosphere, ionosphere, and geomagnetic 
                         field, respectively. Consequently, it is worth determining the 
                         uncertainties (or errors) in Ey and Ez associated with these 
                         empirical model outputs in order to precisely define the 
                         confidence limit for the estimated electric field components. For 
                         this purpose, errors of 10 % were artificially introduced in the 
                         magnitude of each empirical model output before estimating Ey and 
                         Ez. The corresponding uncertainties in the ionospheric 
                         conductivity and electric field are evaluated considering the 
                         individual and cumulative contribution of the artificial errors. 
                         The results show that the neutral densities and temperature may be 
                         responsible for the largest changes in Ey and Ez, followed by 
                         changes in the geomagnetic field intensity and electron and ions 
                  doi = "10.1186/s40623-016-0479-0",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40623-016-0479-0",
                 issn = "1343-8832",
                label = "lattes: 0549130828972280 5 MoroDenResCheSch:2016:InUnEm",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "moro_influence.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"