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@Article{WangKGKBBCCCDLMMMPPSSSSTTWWSKMAAPM:2016:AmBoLa,
               author = "Wang, Jian and Krejci, Radovan and Giangrande, Scott and Kuang, 
                         Chongai and Barbosa, Henrique M. J. and Brito, Joel and Carbone, 
                         Samara and Chi, Xuguang and Comstock, Jennifer and Ditas, Florian 
                         and Lavric, Jost and Manninen, Hanna E. and Mei, Fan and 
                         Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel and P{\"o}hlker, Christopher and 
                         P{\"o}hlker, Mira L. and Saturno, Jorge and Schmid, Beat and 
                         Souza, Rodrigo A. F. and Springston, Stephen R. and Tomlinson, 
                         Jason M. and Toto, Tami and Walter, David and Wimmer, Daniela and 
                         Smith, James N. and Kulmala, Markku and Machado, Luiz Augusto 
                         Toledo and Artaxo, Paulo and Andreae, Meinrat O. and 
                         Pet{\"a}j{\"a}, Tuukka and Martin, Scot T.",
          affiliation = "{Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {Stockholm University} and 
                         {Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {Brookhaven National 
                         Laboratory} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and 
                         {Pacific Northwest National Laborator} and {Max Planck Institute 
                         for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry} and 
                         {University of Helsinki} and {Pacific Northwest National 
                         Laborator} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max 
                         Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Pacific 
                         Northwest National Laborator} and {Universidade do Estado de 
                         Amazona (UEAM)} and {Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {Pacific 
                         Northwest National Laborator} and {Brookhaven National Laboratory} 
                         and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {University of 
                         Helsinki} and {University of California} and {University of 
                         Helsinki} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {University of Helsinki} and {Harvard 
                         University}",
                title = "Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical 
                         transport during rainfall",
              journal = "Nature",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "539",
               number = "7629",
                pages = "416--419",
             abstract = "The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of 
                         new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud 
                         condensation nuclei in the atmosphere1 . Most field studies of 
                         atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric 
                         vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in 
                         consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial 
                         environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is 
                         one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and 
                         their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions35, 
                         but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud 
                         condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains 
                         unclear68. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements 
                         under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon 
                         basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles 
                         (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free 
                         troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the 
                         boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective 
                         downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform 
                         region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the 
                         population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and 
                         may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural 
                         conditions.",
                  doi = "10.1038/nature19819",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19819",
                 issn = "0028-0836",
                label = "lattes: 5379515759830546 27 
                         WangKGKBBCCCDLMMMPPSSSSTTWWSKMAAPM:2016:AmBoLa",
             language = "pt",
           targetfile = "wang_amazon.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"
}


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