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@Article{PennaHerdCoel:2018:EsDiRa,
               author = "Penna, Brunna Romero and Herdies, Dirceu Luis and Coelho, Simone 
                         Marilene Sievert da Costa",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Estimates of direct radiative forcing due to aerosols from 
                         theMERRA-2 reanalysis over the Amazon region",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics Discussion",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "355",
                pages = "1--17",
             abstract = "Sixteen years of analysis of clear-sky direct aerosol radiative 
                         forcing is presented for the Amazon region, with calculations of 
                         AERONET network, MODIS sensor and MERRA-2 reanalysis data. The 
                         results showed that MERRA-2 reanalysis is an excellent tool for 
                         calculating and providing the spatial distribution of aerosol 
                         direct radiative forcing. In addition, the difference between 
                         considering the reference state of the atmosphere without aerosol 
                         loading and with natural aerosol to obtain the aerosol direct 
                         radiative forcing is discussed. During the dry season, the monthly 
                         average direct forcing at the top of atmosphere varied from -9.60 
                         to -4.20W m\−2, and at the surface, it varied from -29.81 
                         to -9.24W m\−26 , according to MERRA-2 reanalysis data and 
                         the reference state of atmosphere without aerosol loading. Already 
                         with the state of reference being the natural aerosols, the 
                         average direct forcing at the top of atmosphere varied from -5.15 
                         to -1.18W m\−2, and at the surface, it varied from -21.28 
                         to -5.25W m\−2; this difference was associated with the 
                         absorption of aerosols.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-2018-355",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-355",
                 issn = "1680-7367",
                label = "lattes: 3752951275341381 2 PennaHerdCost:2018:EsDiRa",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "penna_estimates.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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