author = "Alves, Eliane G. and T{\'o}ta, Julio and Turnipseed, Andrew and 
                         Guenther, Alex B. and Vega Bustillos, Jos{\'e} Oscar W. and 
                         Santana, Raoni A. and Cirino, Glauber G. and Tavares, Julia V. and 
                         Lopes, Aline Pontes and Nelson, Bruce W. and Souza, Rodrigo A. de 
                         and Gu, Dasa and Stavrakou, Trissevgeni and Adams, David K. and 
                         Wu, Jin and Saleska, Scott and Manzi, Antonio Ocimar",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Oeste do Par{\'a} (UFOPA)} and {32B 
                         Technologies Inc.} and {University of California} and {Instituto 
                         de Pesquisas Energ{\'e}ticas e Nucleares (IPEN)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Oeste do Par{\'a} (UFOPA)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Universidade do Estado do 
                         Amazonas (UEA)} and {University of California} and {Royal Belgian 
                         Institute for Space Aeronomy} and {Universidad Nacional 
                         Aut{\'o}noma de M{\'e}xico} and {Brookhaven National Laboratory} 
                         and {University of Arizona} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Leaf phenology as one important driver of seasonal changes in 
                         isoprene emissions in central Amazonia",
              journal = "Biogeosciences",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "15",
               number = "13",
                pages = "4019--4032",
             abstract = "Isoprene fluxes vary seasonally with changes in environmental 
                         factors (e.g., solar radiation and temperature) and biological 
                         factors (e.g., leaf phenology). However, our understanding of the 
                         seasonal patterns of isoprene fluxes and the associated 
                         mechanistic controls is still limited, especially in Amazonian 
                         evergreen forests. In this paper, we aim to connect intensive, 
                         field-based measurements of canopy isoprene flux over a central 
                         Amazonian evergreen forest site with meteorological observations 
                         and with tower-mounted camera leaf phenology to improve our 
                         understanding of patterns and causes of isoprene flux seasonality. 
                         Our results demonstrate that the highest isoprene emissions are 
                         observed during the dry and dry-to-wet transition seasons, whereas 
                         the lowest emissions were found during the wet-to-dry transition 
                         season. Our results also indicate that light and temperature 
                         cannot totally explain isoprene flux seasonality. Instead, the 
                         camera-derived leaf area index (LAI) of recently mature leaf age 
                         class (e.g., leaf ages of 35 months) exhibits the highest 
                         correlation with observed isoprene flux seasonality (R 2 = 0.59, p 
                         < 0.05). Attempting to better represent leaf phenology in the 
                         Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1), 
                         we improved the leaf age algorithm by utilizing results from the 
                         camera-derived leaf phenology that provided LAI categorized into 
                         three different leaf ages. The model results show that the 
                         observations of agedependent isoprene emission capacity, in 
                         conjunction with camera-derived leaf age demography, significantly 
                         improved simulations in terms of seasonal variations in isoprene 
                         fluxes (R 2 = 0.52, p < 0.05). This study highlights the 
                         importance of accounting for differences in isoprene emission 
                         capacity across canopy leaf age classes and identifying forest 
                         adaptive mechanisms that underlie seasonal variation in isoprene 
                         emissions in Amazonia.",
                  doi = "10.5194/bg-15-4019-2018",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-4019-2018",
                 issn = "1726-4170",
                label = "lattes: 1564194439808754 9 AlvesTTGVSCTLNSGSAWSM:2018:LePhOn",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "alves_leaf.pdf",
                  url = "https://www.biogeosciences.net/15/4019/2018/",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"