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@Article{LimaKuxShig:2018:AcAuNa,
               author = "Lima, Sidney Andrade de and Kux, Hermann Johann Heinrich and 
                         Shiguemori, Elcio Hideiti",
          affiliation = "{Instituto de Estudos Avan{\c{c}}ados (IEAv)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto de Estudos 
                         Avan{\c{c}}ados (IEAv)}",
                title = "Accuracy of autonomy navigation of unmanned aircraft systems 
                         through imagery",
              journal = "International Journal of Mechanical \& Mechatronics Engineering",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "12",
               number = "5",
                pages = "433--437",
                 note = "{Setores de Atividade: Atividades de presta{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         servi{\c{c}}os de informa{\c{c}}{\~a}o.} and 
                         Informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es Adicionais: Abstract:The Unmanned Aircraft 
                         Systems (UAS) usually navigate through the Global Navigation 
                         Satellite System (GNSS) associated with an Inertial Navigation 
                         System (INS). However, GNSS can have its accuracy degraded at any 
                         time or even turn off the signal of GNSS. In addition, there is 
                         the possibility of malicious and interferences, known as jamming. 
                         Therefore, the image navigation system can solve the autonomy 
                         problem, because if the GNSS is disabled or degraded, the image 
                         navigation system would continue to provide coordinate information 
                         for the INS, allowing the autonomy of the system. This work aims 
                         to evaluate the accuracy of the and {positioning though 
                         photogrammetry concepts. The methodology uses} and orthophotos and 
                         Digital Surface Models (DSM) as a reference to represent the 
                         object space and photograph obtained during the flight to 
                         represent the image space. For the calculation of the coordinates 
                         of the perspective center and camera attitudes, it is necessary to 
                         know the coordinates of homologous points in the object space 
                         (orthophoto coordinates and DSM altitude) and image space (column 
                         and line of the photograph). So if it is possible to automatically 
                         identify in real and time the homologous points the coordinates 
                         and attitudes can be calculated whit their respective accuracies. 
                         With the methodology applied in this work, it is possible to 
                         verify maximum errors in the order of 0.5 m in the positioning and 
                         0.6 in the attitude of the camera, so the navigation through the 
                         image can reach values equal and to or higher than the GNSS 
                         receivers without differential correction. Therefore, navigating 
                         through the image is a good alternative to enable autonomous 
                         navigation..",
             keywords = "Autonomy, Navigation, Security, Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, 
                         Spatial resection.",
             abstract = "The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) usually navigate through the 
                         Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) associated with an 
                         Inertial Navigation System (INS). However, GNSS can have its 
                         accuracy degraded at any time or even turn off the signal of GNSS. 
                         In addition, there is the possibility of malicious interferences, 
                         known as jamming. Therefore, the image navigation system can solve 
                         the autonomy problem, because if the GNSS is disabled or degraded, 
                         the image navigation system would continue to provide coordinate 
                         information for the INS, allowing the autonomy of the system. This 
                         work aims to evaluate the accuracy of the positioning though 
                         photogrammetry concepts. The methodology uses orthophotos and 
                         Digital Surface Models (DSM) as a reference to represent the 
                         object space and photograph obtained during the flight to 
                         represent the image space. For the calculation of the coordinates 
                         of the perspective center and camera attitudes, it is necessary to 
                         know the coordinates of homologous points in the object space 
                         (orthophoto coordinates and DSM altitude) and image space (column 
                         and line of the photograph). So if it is possible to automatically 
                         identify in real time the homologous points the coordinates and 
                         attitudes can be calculated whit their respective accuracies. With 
                         the methodology applied in this work, it is possible to verify 
                         maximum errors in the order of 0.5 m in the positioning and 0.6 
                         in the attitude of the camera, so the navigation through the image 
                         can reach values equal to or higher than the GNSS receivers 
                         without differential correction. Therefore, navigating through the 
                         image is a good alternative to enable autonomous navigation.",
                 issn = "2227-2771",
                label = "lattes: 3233696672067020 2 LimaKuxShig:2018:AcAuNa",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "lima_accuracy.pdf",
                  url = "http://www,obt.inpe.br",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"
}


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