author = "Cohen, Marcelo C. L. and Souza, Adriana V. de and Rossetti, Dilce 
                         de F{\'a}tima and Pessenda, Luiz C. R. and Fran{\c{c}}a, Marlon 
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} 
                title = "Decadal-scale dynamics of an Amazonian mangrove caused by climate 
                         and sea level changes: inferences from spatial-temporal analysis 
                         and digital elevation models",
              journal = "Earth Surface Processes and Landforms",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "43",
                pages = "2876--2888",
                 note = "{Informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es Adicionais: 10.1002/esp.4440.}",
             keywords = "Bragan{\c{c}}a mangrove, sea level, rainfall, digital elevation 
             abstract = "Sea level rise and climate change are major forces driving wetland 
                         dynamics. The northern Brazilian coast has one of the largest 
                         continuous mangrove areas on Earth, with the mangroves from the 
                         Bragan{\c{c}}a Peninsula, in eastern Amazonia, being the most 
                         representative ones. These mangroves have migrated into higher 
                         tidal flats over recent years. We analyzed spatialtemporal changes 
                         of vegetation units adapted to different physicalchemical 
                         conditions along the Bragan{\c{c}}a Peninsula in order to 
                         decipher possible causes responsible for such recent mangrove 
                         dynamics. The investigation was based on time series analysis of a 
                         33-year (19842017) database consisting of satellite and drone 
                         images. These data were combined with digital elevation models 
                         based on topographical data obtained by photogrammetry, theodolite 
                         and hydrotopographic devices. During this time frame, mangroves 
                         invaded 2.7 km2 of inner tidal flats, which is compatible with a 
                         rise in relative sea level (RSL) and with a rainfall decreasing. 
                         Such topography-dependent dynamic suggests that an increased 
                         frequency of tidal inundation decreased porewater salinity and 
                         caused mangroves to expand into topographically higher grounds. 
                         However, the study area contains small basins, that are less 
                         affected by tidal inundation, and Avicennia trees are dying in 
                         these locations due to increased porewater salinity, probably 
                         caused by a decreased rainfall. We propose that climate and RSL 
                         are responsible for driving the death of mangroves in the study 
                         area, and their migration into the topographically highest tidal 
                         flats. Assuming a RSL rise of 5 mm/yr under stable rainfall, or a 
                         RSL rise of 3 mm/yr accompanied by decreased rainfall, it is 
                         projected that mangrove areas will expand by 2.93 or 1.35 km2 , 
                         respectively, by the end of this century. The combination of 
                         photogrammetry with theodolite/hydrotopographic surveying proved 
                         to be an efficient and innovative process for monitoring and 
                         evaluating the impacts of global changes on mangroves.",
                  doi = "10.1002/esp.4440",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/esp.4440",
                 issn = "0197-9337",
                label = "lattes: 0307721738107549 3 CohenSouRosPesFra:2018:InSpAn",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "cohen_decadal.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"