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@Article{CampanharoLopAndSilAra:2019:TrFiIm,
               author = "Campanharo, Wesley Augusto and Lopes, Aline Pontes and Anderson, 
                         Liana and Silva, Thiago da and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira 
                         e Cruz de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Centro Nacional de 
                         Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais (CEMADEN)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Translating Fire Impacts in Southwestern Amazonia into Economic 
                         Costs",
              journal = "Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "11",
               number = "7",
                pages = "764",
             keywords = "Economic cost, Environment valuation, Wildfires.",
             abstract = "Between 1998 and 2017, climate-related disasters represented 91% 
                         of all occurrences worldwide, causing approximately US\$ 2.245 
                         billion of direct economic losses. In the Amazon region, fire is 
                         used as a widely spread technique for land clearing, agricultural 
                         management, hunting, and religious rituals. However, over the past 
                         20 years, severe droughts caused a major amplification of fire 
                         occurrences, leading to several socioeconomic and environmental 
                         impacts. Particularly in Acre state, located in the southwestern 
                         Brazilian Amazon, the occurrence of extensive fires, associated 
                         with extreme climatic events, has been reported since 2005. 
                         However, fire dynamics, land tenure relationships, and associated 
                         impacts are poorly quantified. In this study, we aim to 
                         investigate the following: (1) The spatiotemporal variability of 
                         fire dynamics during anomalously dry and regular climate 
                         conditions; (2) the attribution of fire occurrence and land tenure 
                         relationship, and (3) the environmental, social, and economic 
                         impacts caused by fires and its consequences for Acres economy. We 
                         analyzed information on the spatial patterns of fire, its direct 
                         impacts on land use and land cover, carbon stocks, CO2 emissions, 
                         the indirect impact on human illness, and finally the costs of 
                         these impacts from 2008 to 2012. During the studied period, burned 
                         areas were concentrated around the major cities and roads, forming 
                         polygons up to 0.6 km2 . However, in 2010, an extremely dry year, 
                         fires spread to remote areas, impacting protected private areas 
                         and sustainable-use conservation areas. In 2010, the total area 
                         affected by forest fires was approximately 16 times greater than 
                         in meteorologically normal years. The total economic loss 
                         estimated in 2010 was around US\$ 243.36  85.05 million and for 
                         the entire period, US\$ 307.46  85.41 million. These values 
                         represent 7.03  2.45% and 9.07  2.46% of Acres gross domestic 
                         product (GDP), respectively.",
                  doi = "10.3390/rs11070764",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs11070764",
                 issn = "2072-4292",
                label = "lattes: 6672059696937513 1 CampanharoLopAndSilAra:2019:TrFiIm",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "remotesensing-11-00764.pdf",
                  url = "https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/11/7/764",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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