author = "Gomes, Helber B. and Ambrizzi, T{\'e}rcio and Pontes da Silva, 
                         Bruce F. and Hodges, Kevin and Silva Dias, Pedro L. and Herdies, 
                         Dirceu Luis and Silva, Maria Cristina L. and Gomes, 
                         Heliof{\'a}bio B.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do Alagoas (UFAL)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto de Pesquisa Capixaba} and 
                         {University of Reading} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Alagoas (UFAL)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         do Alagoas (UFAL)}",
                title = "Climatology of easterly wave disturbances over the tropical South 
              journal = "Climate Dynamics",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "51",
                pages = "1--19",
             keywords = "Easterly waves disturbances · Tropical South Atlantic · Northeast 
                         Brazil and climatology.",
             abstract = "A 21-year climatology of Easterly Waves Disturbances (EWDs) over 
                         the tropical South Atlantic (TSA) has been examined using data 
                         from the European Centers for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting 
                         interim reanalysis (ERAI) and satellite data. This includes the 
                         frequency distribution of EWDs and their interannual variability. 
                         The large-scale environment associated with EWDs has been 
                         investigated for the coastal region of Northeast Brazil (NEB) for 
                         the rainy (AprilAugust) season using a composite analysis. EWDs 
                         were first identified in ERAI, resulting in 518 observed cases. 
                         These were found to show notable interannual variability with 
                         around 1640 episodes each year and with an average lifetime of 46 
                         days. Of the identified EWDs, 97% reached the coast of NEB, of 
                         which 64% were convective in nature and 14% moved across the NEB 
                         region and reached the Amazon. The annual occurrence of EWDs seems 
                         to be lower (higher) during El Niņo (La Niņa). The monthly 
                         occurrence of EWDs shows higher activity in the rainy season. EWDs 
                         originate in association with four types of system: cold fronts, 
                         convective clusters from the west coast of Africa, Intertropical 
                         Convergence Zone and Tropical Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic 
                         Vortices. The composite analysis indicates strong relative 
                         vorticity and divergence anomalies at low levels, as well as in 
                         the vertical profiles of relative humidity and vertical velocity 
                         (omega). The precipitation composites show that the EWDs propagate 
                         between the TSA and NEB and contribute at least 60% of the total 
                         rainfall over the east coast of NEB throughout the rainy season.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00382-019-04667-7",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04667-7",
                 issn = "0930-7575",
                label = "lattes: 3752951275341381 6 GomesAPHSHSG:2019:ClEaWa",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Gomes2019_Article_ClimatologyOfEasterlyWaveDistu.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 abr. 2021"