author = "Carlesso, Franciele and Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes and Berni, 
                         Luiz Angelo and Savonov, Graziela da Silva and Oliva, Alberto 
                         Remesal and Finsterle, Wolfgang and Miranda, Edson Luiz de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium 
                         Davos} and {Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Physical and optical properties of ultra-black nickel-phosphorus 
                         for a total solar irradiance measurement",
              journal = "The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "248",
               number = "248",
                pages = "4",
             abstract = "The total solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere is the 
                         primary source of energy of the Earths highly coupled 
                         atmospherelandocean system. Small fluctuations of the solar flux 
                         density in scales from years to millennia could impact the energy 
                         balance of this system due to nonlinear effects. The 
                         quantification of this variability depends on absolute radiometers 
                         on board of space-based platforms. Although there has been 
                         significant improvement in the design and calibration of absolute 
                         radiometers during the last decades, the uncertainties in the 
                         measurements have not allowed us to untangle the natural and 
                         anthropogenic drivers of the observed changes of the climatic 
                         patterns appropriately. One of the critical components of the 
                         absolute radiometers is the coating of the sensor elements, which 
                         should absorb the radiation efficiently. Here we discuss the 
                         optical characteristics of ultra-black Nickel Phosphorus (NiP) and 
                         its relations with the surface morphology. The ultra-black NiP has 
                         important unique properties such as low reflectance and uniformity 
                         of deposition in complex geometries. NiP multilayer was deposited 
                         by electroless on aluminum substrates. The surface was etched by 
                         oxidizing acid to produce ultra-black NiP. Characterization 
                         techniques were used to describe the properties of the material. 
                         We describe the directional reflectance employing the 
                         bidirectional reflectance distribution function. Additionally, we 
                         used reflectance maps to show the influence of the pores on the 
                         reflectance. Ultra-black NiP exhibited a high absorptance and 
                         dependence with the light incidence angle. Based on the results, 
                         the material demonstrated the opportunity of many terrestrial and 
                         space applications as a black coating absorber.",
                  doi = "10.3847/1538-4365/ab7af8",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4365/ab7af8",
                 issn = "0067-0049",
                label = "lattes: 9831996893882845 2 CarlessoViBeSaReFiMi:2020:PhOpPr",
             language = "pt",
           targetfile = "carlesso_physical.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "12 abr. 2021"